RSS所有帶有標籤的條目: "暴力"




Ever since the Bush administration’s declaration of a global war on terror after 9/11,academics and policymakers have sought ways to counter the global terrorist threat. However asJeffrey Record (2003) has noted, treating terrorism monolithically and failing to discriminatebetween terrorist groups and other actors reduces the ability to produce effectivecounterterrorism strategies. 而且, it can set actors “on a course of open-ended andgratuitous conflict with states and nonstate entities that pose no serious threat.” If terrorism andterrorist groups are not homogenous entities, then understanding the differences and similaritiesbetween groups is a crucial first step in constructing an effective counterterrorist response.This research seeks to better discriminate between terrorist groups by examining thegoals, tactics and images embedded in the narratives of terrorist or terrorist spawningorganizations. We define narratives as shared understandings of historical events and relevantactors that are used to justify past political actions or mobilize people for contemporary politicalactions as generally expressed through descriptions or charters issued by organizations orthrough statements of organizational leaders.2 Narrative, as noted by Benedict Anderson, formsthe underbelly of an “imagined community:” the glue binding a group of like-minded individualswho, “will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet inthe minds of each lives the image of their communion” (安德森 6). 所以, we believethat narratives are excellent sources for uncovering group conceptions of “self” and “others” thatare key in attracting and maintaining ties to diaspora communities, as well as related group goals,strategies and tactics. We argue that by comparing the goals, images and tactics embedded in thenarratives of these different organizations, we can shed insight on crucial differences andsimilarities between these terrorist groups. These insights not only help discriminate betweenterrorist groups and other organizations, but also shed insight on the evolution of suchorganizations themselves.Specifically, this research examines the narratives of four groups: the MuslimBrotherhood, 哈馬斯, Al Qaeda and the Tamil Tigers. Two of these groups, Hamas and AlQaeda, have roots in the Muslim Brotherhood and therefore can be viewed as diasporas of thelatter. 然而, while the Muslim Brotherhood takes an evolutionary and nonviolent approachto goal attainment, Hamas and Al Qaeda advocate violence and terrorism to advance their cause,tactics that are also promoted by the fourth group in the analysis, the Tamil Tigers. Since theTamil Tigers have no connection with the Muslim Brotherhood, their inclusion in ourcomparative analysis allows us to determine how much of the commonality of goals acrossterrorist organizations pertains to common roots and how much pertains to commonality oforganizational type, function or tactics.




儘管最近學術界和民眾都將注意力集中在暴力跨國伊斯蘭恐怖網絡上,伊斯蘭運動眾多. 這種多樣性給學者帶來了兩個難題. 第一個難題是要理解為什麼作為對世俗民族國家建立的反應而形成的面向家庭的伊斯蘭運動將其活動和目標轉移到多層跨國空間上. 第二個難題是要理解為什麼目標和目標相似的群體在“跨國”時採用不同的使用暴力或非暴力的策略。本文將要解決的兩個主要問題是: 為什麼伊斯蘭運動走向跨國? 和, 他們為何在跨國化時採取不同的形式? 第一, 我認為,跨國層面為伊斯蘭運動提供了新的政治場所,伊斯蘭運動在國內的主張受到限制. 第二, 我認為跨國化在跨國層面上為群體帶來了關於身份和主張的不確定性. 所採用的媒介, 即. 使用暴力與非暴力, 取決於跨國化的類型, 演員在跨國層面遇到, 和領導對運動下一步走向的解釋. 回答我的問題, 我來看四種情況: (1) 土耳其伊斯蘭教, (2) 穆斯林兄弟會, (3) 伊斯蘭祈禱團, 和 (4) 塔比吉·賈瑪(Tablighi Jamaat)