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Ислямска реформация

Аднан Хан

Италианският премиер, Силвио Берлускони се похвали след събитията от 9/11:
„... трябва да сме наясно с превъзходството на нашата цивилизация, система, която гарантира

благополучие, зачитане на правата на човека и – за разлика от ислямските страни – уважение

за религиозни и политически права, система, която има своите ценности разбиране за многообразието

и толерантност ... Западът ще завладее народите, сякаш победи комунизма, дори и да е така

означава конфронтация с друга цивилизация, ислямската, остана там, където беше

1,400 преди години ... ”1

И в а 2007 доклад, деклариран от института RAND:
„Борбата, която се води в голяма част от мюсюлманския свят, по същество е война на

идеи. Резултатът от него ще определи бъдещата посока на мюсюлманския свят. "

Изграждане на умерени мюсюлмански мрежи, Институт RAND

Понятието „ислям“ (реформа) е понятие, непознато за мюсюлманите. Той никога не е съществувал през цялото време

историята на ислямската цивилизация; тя никога не е била обсъждана или дори обмисляна. Бегъл поглед към класиката

Ислямската литература ни показва, че когато класическите учени поставят основите на узула, и кодифициран

техните ислямски решения (фикх) те се стремяха само към разбирането на ислямските правила, за да

прилагайте ги. Подобна ситуация се случи, когато бяха определени правилата за хадиса, tafseer и

арабски език. Учени, мислители и интелектуалци през цялата ислямска история прекарват много време

разбиране на откровението на Аллах - Корана и прилагане на аята върху реалностите и измислено

принципи и дисциплини, за да се улесни разбирането. Следователно Коранът е в основата на

изучаването и всички развиващи се дисциплини винаги се основават на Корана. Тези, които станаха

поразени от гръцката философия като мюсюлманските философи и някои от мутазила

се смята, че са напуснали кръга на исляма, тъй като Коранът е престанал да бъде тяхната основа за изучаване. Така за

всеки мюсюлманин, който се опитва да изведе правила или да разбере каква позиция трябва да бъде заета по отношение на конкретен човек

издаването на Корана е в основата на това изследване.

Първият опит за реформиране на исляма е направен в края на 19 век. До края на

век Ума е била в продължителен период на упадък, когато глобалният баланс на силите се измести

от Халифа до Великобритания. Проблемите с монтирането обхванаха Халифата, докато Западна Европа беше

в разгара на индустриалната революция. Уммата изгуби девственото си разбиране за исляма, и

в опит да обърне упадъка, обхващащ османските (Османци) някои мюсюлмани бяха изпратени в

Запад, и в резултат на това бяха поразени от това, което видяха. Rifa’a Rafi ’al-Tahtawi от Египет (1801-1873),

при завръщането си от Париж, wrote a biographical book called Takhlis al-ibriz ila talkhis Bariz (The

Extraction of Gold, or an Overview of Paris, 1834), praising their cleanliness, love of work, and above

all social morality. He declared that we must mimic what is being done in Paris, advocating changes to

the Islamic society from liberalising women to the systems of ruling. This thought, and others like it,

marked the beginning of the reinventing trend in Islam.

The Syrian Opposition

Джошуа Ландис

Джо Пейс


For decades, нас. policy toward Syria has been single-mindedly focused on Syria’s president, Hafiz al-Asad, from 1970 to 2000, followed by his son Bashar. Because they perceived the Syrian opposition to be too weak and anti-American, нас. officials preferred to work with the Asad regime. Washington thus had no relations with the Syrian opposition until its invasion of Iraq in 2003. Even then, the Bush administration reached out only to Washington-based opponents of the Syrian regime. They were looking for a Syrian counterpart to Ahmad Chalabi, the pro-U.S. Iraqi opposition leader who helped build the case for invading Iraq.
Washington was not interested in engaging Islamists, whom it considered the only opposition with a demonstrated popular base in Syria. As for the secular opposition in Syria, нас. embassy officials in Damascus considered them to “have a weak back bench,” without a popular constituency or connection to Syrian youth.2 Moreover, contact between opposition members and embassy officials could be dangerous for opponents of the regime and leave them open to accusations of treason. For these reasons, the difficult terrain of opposition figures within Syria remained terra incognita.

The Politics and the Promise of Civilizational Dialogues

М. A. Muqtedar Khan

In response to Harvard Professor SamuelHuntington’s now infamous argument predicting afuture full of clashes between civilizations, the world’sliberals responded with a call for a civilizational dialogue.After 9/11, this call for a dialogue betweenIslam and the West has become even more urgent.The philosophical assumptions behind these dialoguesare not too difficult to discern. Islam and themodern West share a common Abrahamic traditionand their foundational sources; Islamic law and philosophyand Western enlightenment philosophy havecommon roots—Hellenistic reason and Biblical revelation.The two civilizations have a common past anda common future, particularly in the light of strongeconomic relations between the West and the Muslimworld and the growing presence of Islam in nearlyevery Western society.Because the future of the two civilizations is inseparable,any clash will be devastating to both, regardlessof the asymmetry of power. A clash between Islamand the modern West would be like a collisionbetween the present and the future for both. Islam isintegral to the future of the West and Islamic civilization’sreticence toward modernity is untenable.Eventually, the Muslim world will have to modernize,democratize, and recognize that its future, too, isinterdependent. Neither the West nor the Muslimworld can imagine a mutually exclusive future.

Current Trends in the Ideology of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood

Д-р. Израел Елад Алтман

The American-led Middle East reform and democratization campaign of the last twoyears has helped shape a new political reality in Egypt. Opportunities have opened up fordissent. With U.S. and European support, local opposition groups have been able to takeinitiative, advance their causes and extract concessions from the state. The EgyptianMuslim Brotherhood movement (MB), which has been officially outlawed as a politicalorganization, is now among the groups facing both new opportunities and new risks.Western governments, including the government of the United States, are consideringthe MB and other “moderate Islamist” groups as potential partners in helping to advancedemocracy in their countries, and perhaps also in eradicating Islamist terrorism. Couldthe Egyptian MB fill that role? Could it follow the track of the Turkish Justice andDevelopment Party (AKP) and the Indonesian Prosperous Justice Party (MCC), twoIslamist parties that, according to some analysts, are successfully adapting to the rules ofliberal democracy and leading their countries toward greater integration with,respectively, Europe and a “pagan” Asia?This article examines how the MB has responded to the new reality, how it has handledthe ideological and practical challenges and dilemmas that have arisen during the pasttwo years. To what extent has the movement accommodated its outlook to newcircumstances? What are its objectives and its vision of the political order? How has itreacted to U.S. overtures and to the reform and democratization campaign? How has itnavigated its relations with the Egyptian regime on one hand, and other opposition forceson the other, as the country headed toward two dramatic elections in autumn 2005? Towhat extent can the MB be considered a force that might lead Egypt toward liberaldemocracy?

Американците мюсюлмани от средната класа и предимно масови

Изследователски център Pew

Мюсюлманите представляват нарастващ и все по-важен сегмент на американското общество. И все пак има изненадващо малко количествени изследвания за нагласите и мненията на този сегмент от обществеността по две причини. First, Съединените Щати. Преброяването е забранено от закона да задава въпроси относно религиозни убеждения и принадлежност, и, като резултат, ние знаем много малко за основните демографски характеристики на американците мюсюлмани. Второ, Мюсюлманските американци съставляват толкова малък процент от САЩ. населението, което общите проучвания на населението не интервюират достатъчен брой от тях, за да се даде възможност за смислен анализ.Поради това това изследване на Pew Research Center е първото по рода си проучване в цялата страна, което се опитва да измери стриктно демографските данни, нагласи и опит на мюсюлманските американци. Той изгражда проучвания, проведени в 2006 от Проекта за глобални нагласи на Pew на мюсюлманските общества на малцинствата във Великобритания, Франция, Германия и Испания. Американското мюсюлманско проучване също следва глобалните проучвания на Pew’s, проведени през последните пет години с повече от 30,000 Мюсюлмани в 22 нации по света от 2002 г. Използваният методологичен подход е най-изчерпателният, използван някога за изследване на мюсюлманските американци. Почти 60,000 респондентите бяха интервюирани, за да намерят представителна извадка от мюсюлмани. Интервютата бяха проведени на арабски, Урду и фарси, as well as English. Subsamplesof the national poll were large enough to explore how various subgroups of thepopulationincluding recent immigrants, native-born converts, and selected ethnic groupsincluding those of Arab, Pakistani, and African American heritagediffer in their attitudesThe survey also contrasts the views of the Muslim population as a whole with those ofthe U.S. general population, and with the attitudes of Muslims all around the world, includingWestern Europe. Finally, findings from the survey make important contributions to the debateover the total size of the Muslim American population.The survey is a collaborative effort of a number of Pew Research Center projects,including the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, the Pew Forum on Religion &Public Life and the Pew Hispanic Center. The project was overseen by Pew Research CenterPresident Andrew Kohut and Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life Director Luis Lugo. ThePew Research Center’s Director of Survey Research, Scott Keeter, served as project director forthe study, with the close assistance of Gregory Smith, Research Fellow at the Pew Forum. Manyother Pew researchers participated in the design, execution and analysis of the survey.

Египет: Background and U.S. Relations

Джеръми М.. Остър

In the last year, Egyptian foreign policy, particularly its relationship with the United States, hasbenefitted substantially from both a change in U.S. policy and from events on the ground. TheObama Administration, as evident in the President’s June 2009 speech in Cairo, has elevatedEgypt’s importance to U.S. foreign policy in the region, as U.S. policymakers work to revive theArab-Israeli peace process. In choosing Cairo as a venue for the President’s signature address tothe Muslim world, Egyptians feel that the United States has shown their country respectcommensurate with its perceived stature in the Arab world.At the same time, continuing tensions with Iran and Hamas have bolstered Egypt’s position as amoderating force in the region and demonstrated the country’s diplomatic utility to U.S. foreignpolicy. Based on its own interests, Egypt has opposed Iranian meddling in the Levant and in Gazaand has recently expanded military cooperation with Israel in order to demonstrate resolve againstfurther Iranian provocations, such as arming Hamas or allowing Hezbollah to operate on Egyptiansoil. Furthermore, Israel’s Operation Cast Lead (Декември 2008 to January 2009) highlighted theneed to moderate Hamas’s behavior, attain Palestinian unity, and reach a long-term Israel-Hamascease-fire/prisoner exchange, goals which Egypt has been working toward, albeit with limitedsuccess so far.Indications of an improved bilateral relationship have been clearly evident. Over the last sixmonths, there has been a flurry of diplomatic exchanges, culminating in President Obama’s June2009 visit to Egypt and Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak’s trip to Washington in August 2009,his first visit to the United States in over five years. Following President Obama’s June visit, thetwo governments held their annual strategic dialogue. Several months earlier, the United Statespledged to expand trade and investment in Egypt.Despite the appearance of a more positive atmosphere, inherent tensions and contradictions inU.S.-Egyptian relations remain. For U.S. policymakers and Members of Congress, the question ofhow to simultaneously maintain the U.S.-Egyptian strategic relationship born out of the CampDavid Accords and the 1979 peace treaty while promoting human rights and democracy in Egyptis a major challenge with no clear path. As Egyptian opposition figures have grown more vocal inrecent years over issues such as leadership succession, corruption, and economic inequality, andthe regime has subsequently grown more repressive in its response to increased calls for reform,activists have demanded that the United States pressure Egypt to create more breathing space fordissent. The Egyptian government has resisted any U.S. attempts to interfere in its domesticpolitics and has responded harshly to overt U.S. calls for political reform. At the same time, as theIsraeli-Palestinian situation has further deteriorated, Egypt’s role as a mediator has provedinvaluable to U.S. foreign policy in the region. Egypt has secured cease-fire agreements andmediated negotiations with Hamas over prisoner releases, cease-fire arrangements, and otherissues. Since Hamas is a U.S.-designated Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO) and calls forIsrael’s destruction, neither Israel nor the United States government directly negotiates with itsofficials, using Egypt instead as a go-between. With the Obama Administration committed topursuing Middle East peace, there is concern that U.S. officials may give a higher priority toEgypt’s regional role at the expense of human rights and democratic reforms.

Middle East Democracy Promotion Is Not a One-way Street

Марина Отауей

The U.S. administration is under pressure to revive democracy promotion efforts in the Middle East,but momentum toward political reform has stalled in most of the region. Opposition parties are at lowebb, and governments are more firmly in control than ever. While new forms of activism, such as laborprotests and a growing volume of blogging critical of government and opposition parties have becomewidespread, they have yet to prove effective as means of influencing leaders to change long-standingpolicies.The last time a U.S. administration faced such unfavorable circumstances in advancing political reformswas over 30 years ago, when the Helsinki process was launched during the Cold War. That experiencetaught us that the United States needs to give reluctant interlocutors something they want if itexpects them to engage on issues they would rather not address. If Washington wants Arab countriesto discuss the universal democratic principles that should underpin their political systems, it needs to beprepared to discuss the universal principles that should underpin its own Middle East policies.

BETWEEN THE GLOBAL AND THE LOCAL

АНТОНИ БУБАЛО

GREG FEALY

Against the background of the ‘war on terror’,many people have come to view Islamism as amonolithic ideological movement spreading from thecenter of the Muslim world, the Middle East, toMuslim countries around the globe. To borrow aphrase from Abdullah Azzam, the legendary jihadistwho fought to expel the Soviet Union fromAfghanistan in the 1980s, many today see all Islamistsas fellow travellers in a global fundamentalist caravan.This paper evaluates the truth of that perception. Itdoes so by examining the spread of two broad categoriesof Islamic thinking and activism — the morepolitically focused Islamism and more religiouslyfocused ‘neo-fundamentalism’ — from the MiddleEast to Indonesia, a country often cited as an exampleof a formerly peaceful Muslim community radicalizedby external influences.Islamism is a term familiar to many.Most commonly itis used to categorize ideas and forms of activism thatconceive of Islam as a political ideology. Today, a widerange of groups are classified as Islamist, from theEgyptian Muslim Brotherhood to al-qa‘ida.While sucha categorization remains appropriate in many cases,Islamism seems less useful as a label for those groupsthat do not see Islam as a political ideology and largelyeschew political activism — even if their activism sometimeshas political implications. Included in this categoryare groups concerned primarily with Islamic mission-IV Be t w e e n t h e G l o b a l a n d t h e L o c a l : Ислямизъм, the Mi d d l e E a s t , a n d Indonesiaary activity, but it would also include a group such asal-qa‘ida whose acts of terrorism are arguably drivenless by concrete political objectives than religious inspiration,albeit of a misguided form. This paper thereforeuses the term ‘neo-fundamentalist’, developed by theFrench scholar Olivier Roy, to describe these groups andwill study the transmission of both Islamist and neofundamentalistideas to Indonesia.