RSSAlle Einträge Tagged With: "Sayyid Qutb"

Liberale Demokratie und politische Islam: die Search for Common Ground.

Mostapha Benhenda

Dieses Papier versucht, einen Dialog zwischen demokratischem und islamischem politischen theories.1 Das Zusammenspiel zwischen ihnen herzustellen ist rätselhaft: zum Beispiel, um die Beziehung, die zwischen Demokratie und ihre Vorstellung von der idealen islamischen politischen zu erklären
Regime, der pakistanische Gelehrte Abu ‚Ala Maududi den Neologismus‚theodemocracy‘, während der Französisch scholar Louis Massignon prägte den Oxymoron‚weltliche Theokratie‘vorgeschlagen. Diese Ausdrücke deuten darauf hin, dass einige Aspekte der Demokratie positiv bewertet und andere beurteilt negativ. Beispielsweise, Muslimische Gelehrte und Aktivisten unterstützen häufig das Prinzip der Verantwortlichkeit der Herrscher, das ist ein bestimmendes Merkmal der Demokratie. Andererseits, sie lehnen häufig das Prinzip der Trennung zwischen Religion und Staat, die oft als Teil der Demokratie sein (mindestens, in den Vereinigten Staaten von Demokratie als heute bekannt). diese gemischte Beurteilung der demokratischen Grundsätze gegeben, es scheint interessant, die Vorstellung von Demokratie zugrunde liegenden islamische politische Modelle zu bestimmen,. Mit anderen Worten, wir sollten versuchen, um herauszufinden, was in „theodemocracy“ demokratisch. Zu diesem Zweck, unter der beeindruckenden Vielfalt und Vielzahl von islamischen Traditionen des normativen politischen Denkens, wir im Wesentlichen auf dem breiten Strom des Denkens konzentrieren zu Abu ‚Ala Maududi und dem ägyptischen intellektuellen Sayyed Qutb.8 ist diese besondere Entwicklung des Denkens zurück interessant, weil in der muslimischen Welt, es liegt auf der Grundlage einiger der schwierigsten Einsprüche an der Verbreitung der Werte aus dem Westen stamm. Basierend auf religiösen Werten, Dieser Trend erarbeitet eine politische Modell Alternative zur liberalen Demokratie. Allgemein gesprochen, der Begriff der Demokratie in diesem islamischen politischen Modell enthalten ist verfahrens. Mit einigen Unterschieden, Diese Auffassung von demokratischen Theorien inspiriert wird von einigen Verfassungsrechtler und politischen scientists.10 befürwortete Es ist dünn und minimalistisch, bis zu einem bestimmten Punkt. Beispielsweise, es beruht nicht auf jedem Begriff der Volkssouveränität und es erfordert keine Trennung zwischen Religion und Politik. Das erste Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, diese minimalistische Konzeption zu erarbeiten. Wir machen eine detaillierte Anpassung der es um diese Vorstellung von ihrer moralischen zu isolieren (liberal) Stiftungen, die sind umstritten aus dem jeweiligen islamischen Standpunkt hier betrachteten. Tatsächlich, der demokratische Prozess ist in der Regel aus einem Prinzip der persönlichen Autonomie abgeleitet, die von dieser islamischen theories.11 wird hier nicht unterstützt, wir zeigen, dass solche grundsätzlich nicht erforderlich ist, einen demokratischen Prozess zu rechtfertigen.

Islam and Islamism in Afghanistan

Christine Mendoza

The last half-century in particular has seen the recurrent use of religious Islam as

Ideologie, often referred to as political Islam or Islamism, in groups espousing the

establishment of an Islamic state. Attention was drawn to Afghanistan when it became

the rallying point for Islamists in the 1980s. Aber, the earlier appearance of an

Islamist movement in Afghanistan in the 1960s and its subsequent development offer an

instructive, unique lesson in understanding Islam and Islamism in Afghan society.

This overview of the Islamist movement in Afghanistan is divided into three

parts: It begins by defining the differing manifestations of Islam in Afghanistan,

indicating how Islamism differs from or draws upon each manifestation in constructing

its own vision. Then, the broader context of Islamism elsewhere in the Muslim world is

discussed and analyzed. Although the theoretical basis for Islamism was constructed in

the 1960s by Abu ‘Ala Mawdudi in Pakistan and Sayyid Qutb in Egypt, this paper will

show that the Islamist movement in Afghanistan did not mirror those in either of these

countries. To this end, this paper reviews the thought of the above-mentioned

theoreticians of Islamism, and outlines historical and social conditions that colored the

implementation of their models in their respective countries. This leads back to a

discussion of the Afghan context, which makes up the final part of the paper. It is

necessary to review salient aspects of the traditional structure of Afghan society, and the

role Islam has historically played in Afghanistan to understand how the Islamist

experience was shaped and constrained by this structure, as well as how the Islamist

experience has altered it.
As Afghanistan is now faced with the monumental task of rebuilding a state and

legal system, Islamists are attempting to influence the reconstruction. This overview will

underscore for those observing and participating in this process the importance of

understanding the Afghan Islamist perspective, its historical underpinnings, and current

demands.


Im Schatten eines arabischen Caesar: Sayyid Qutb und die Radikalisierung der Moderne islamischen Fundamentalismus

Research

“We are the umma of the believers, living within a jahili society. As a community of believers we should see ourselves in a state of war with the state and the society. The territory we dwell in is the House of War.”1 These were the words of Sayyid Qutb in an Egyptian military court in April, 1966 before he and two of his companions were sentenced to death by hanging. The offense; conspiring against the government and plotting its overthrow, the evidence used by the state prosecutors in the trial, besides ‘confessions,’ a book, Qutb’s final piece of literature, Ma‘alim fi al-Turuq, Signposts.2 This study does not set out to be a thorough analysis of the political and religious ideology of Sayyid Qutb. Rather it is an attempt to identify the political and social climate in Egypt as the primary motivation which led to the development of Qutb’s radical interpretations of Islam. Notions of Arab nationalism and Arab socialism dominated the political discourse of Qutb’s Egypt and hearts and minds were enraptured by promises of its populist leader, Gamal Abdel Nasser. This chapter in Arab history from the early 1950’s until the late 1960’s is etched in historical memory as the era of pan-Arabism. Aber, it was also a vital period in the evolution of fundamentalist Islam into its more radical form which first expressed itself in the 1970’s and is until today at the base of radical fundamentalist Islamic thought worldwide. This piece will
demonstrate the principal role played by Sayyid Qutb in this transformation and reveal that radical interpretations of Islam were given impetus to develop in Egypt during this period due to the nature of Nasser’s regime

Die Muslimbruderschaft

Barbara HE. Zollner

The Muslim Brotherhood is one of the most infl uential Islamist organisations inthe world today. Based in Egypt, its network includes branches in many countriesof the Near and Middle East. Although the organisation has been linked to politicalviolence in the past, it now proposes a politically moderate ideology.This book provides an in-depth analysis of the Muslim Brotherhood duringthe years of al-Hudaybi’s leadership, and how he sought to steer the organisationaway from the radical wing, inspired by Sayyid Qutb, into the more moderateIslamist organisation it is today. It is his legacy which eventually fostered thedevelopment of non-violent political ideas.During the years of persecution, 1954 zu 1971, radical and moderate Islamistideas emerged within the Brotherhood’s midst. Sayyid Qutb’s ideas inspired aradical wing evolved which subsequently fed into radical Islamist networks aswe know them today. Yet, it was during the same period that al-Hudaybi and hisfollowers proposed a moderate political interpretation, which was adopted by theBrotherhood and which forms its ideological basis today.

Islamische Bewegungen und den Einsatz von Gewalt:

Blowing Kirdis

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Trotz der jüngsten wissenschaftlichen und populären Fokus auf heftige grenzüberschreitenden islamischen Terrornetzwerke,gibt es eine Vielzahl von islamischen Bewegungen. Diese Vielfalt präsentiert Wissenschaftler mit zwei Puzzles. The first puzzle is understanding why domestic-oriented Islamic movements that were formed as a reaction to the establishment of secular nation-states shifted their activities and targets onto a multi-layered transnational space. The second puzzle is understanding why groups with similar aims and targets adopt different strategies of using violence or nonviolence when they “go transnational.” The two main questions that this paper will address are: Why do Islamic movements go transnational? And, why do they take on different forms when they transnationalize? First, I argue that the transnational level presents a new political venue for Islamic movements which are limited in their claim making at the domestic level. Second, I argue that transnationalization creates uncertainty for groups about their identity and claims at the transnational level. The medium adopted, i.e. use of violence versus non-violence, is dependent on type of transnationalization, the actors encounter at the transnational level, and leadership’s interpretations on where the movement should go next. To answer my questions, I will look at four cases: (1) Turkish Islam, (2) die Muslimbruderschaft, (3) Jemaah Islamiyah, und (4) Tablighi Jamaat