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ДАВИД Б. ОТТАВЕЙ

Октомври 6, 1981, е трябвало да бъде празник в Египет. Той отбеляза годишнината от най-великия момент на победата на Египет в три арабско-израелски конфликта, когато армията на аутсайдерите в страната премина през Суецкия канал в първите дни на откриването им 1973 Войната Йом Кипур и изпрати израелски войски, които се отдръпнаха. На хладно, безоблачно утро, стадионът в Кайро беше пълен с египетски семейства, които бяха дошли да видят военните, които разпъват хардуера си., Президент Ануар ел-Садат,архитект на войната, гледаше със задоволство как хората и машините дефилираха пред него. Бях наблизо, наскоро пристигнал чуждестранен кореспондент. Изведнъж, един от армейските камиони спря точно пред щанда за преглед точно когато шест реактивни самолета „Мираж“ изреваха над главата в акробатично изпълнение, рисуване на небето с дълги червени пътеки, жълто, лилаво,и зелен дим. Садат се изправи, очевидно се готви да размени поздрави с още един контингент от египетски войски. Той се превърна в перфектна мишена за четирима ислямистки убийци, скочили от камиона, нахлу на подиума, и осея тялото му с куршуми. Докато убийците продължиха, както изглеждаше цяла вечност, да пръскат стойката със своя смъртоносен огън, Замислих се за миг дали да се ударя на земята и да рискувам да бъда потъпкан до смърт от панически зрители, или да продължа и да рискувам да взема бездомен куршум. Инстинктът ми каза да стоя на крака, and my sense of journalistic duty impelled me to go find out whether Sadat was alive or dead.

Islam and the Making of State Power

seyyed vali reza nasr

In 1979 General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq, the military ruler of Pakistan, declared that Pakistan would become an Islamic state. Islamic values and norms would serve as the foundation of national identity, law, economy, and social relations, and would inspire all policy making. In 1980 Mahathir Muhammad, the new prime minister of Malaysia, introduced a similar broad-based plan to anchor state policy making in Islamic values, and to bring his country’s laws and economic practices in line with the teachings of Islam. Why did these rulers choose the path of “Islamization” for their countries? И как някогашните светски постколониални държави станаха агенти на ислямизацията и предвестник на „истинската“ ислямска държава?
Малайзия и Пакистан след края на 70 -те - началото на 80 -те години следват уникален път на развитие, който се различава от опита на други държави от Третия свят. В тези две държави религиозната идентичност е интегрирана в държавната идеология, за да информира целта и процеса на развитие с ислямските ценности.
Това начинание също представи много различна картина на връзката между исляма и политиката в мюсюлманските общества. В Малайзия и Пакистан, това са държавни институции, а не ислямистки активисти (тези, които се застъпват за политически прочит на исляма; известен също като възрожденци или фундаменталисти) that have been the guardians of Islam and the defenders of its interests. This suggests a
very different dynamic in the ebbs and flow of Islamic politics—in the least pointing to the importance of the state in the vicissitudes of this phenomenon.
What to make of secular states that turn Islamic? What does such a transformation mean for the state as well as for Islamic politics?
This book grapples with these questions. This is not a comprehensive account of Malaysia’s or Pakistan’s politics, nor does it cover all aspects of Islam’s role in their societies and politics, although the analytical narrative dwells on these issues considerably. This book is rather a social scientific inquiry into the phenomenon of secular postcolonial states becoming agents of Islamization, and more broadly how culture and religion serve the needs of state power and development. The analysis here relies on theoretical discussions
in the social sciences of state behavior and the role of culture and religion therein. More important, it draws inferences from the cases under examination to make broader conclusions of interest to the disciplines.

FEMINISM BETWEEN SECULARISM AND ISLAMISM: THE CASE OF PALESTINE

Д-р, Islah Jad

Legislative elections held in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in 2006 brought to power the Islamist movement Hamas, which went on to form the majority of the Palestinian Legislative Council and also the first majority Hamas government. These elections resulted in the appointment of the first female Hamas minister, who became the Minister of Women’s Affairs. Between March 2006 and June 2007, two different female Hamas ministers assumed this post, but both found it difficult to manage the Ministry since most of its employees were not Hamas members but belonged to other political parties, and most were members of Fatah, the dominant movement controlling most Palestinian Authority institutions. A tense period of struggle between the women of Hamas in the Ministry of Women’s Affairs and the female members of Fatah came to an end following Hamas’ takeover of power in the Gaza Strip and the resultant fall of its government in the West Bank – a struggle which sometimes took a violent turn. One reason later cited to explain this struggle was the difference between secular feminist discourse and Islamist discourse on women’s issues. In the Palestinian context this disagreement took on a dangerous nature as it was used to justify perpetuating the bloody political struggle, the removal of Hamas women from their positions or posts, and the political and geographical divides prevailing at the time in both the West Bank and the occupied Gaza Strip.
This struggle raises a number of important questions: should we punish the Islamist movement which has come to power, or should we consider the reasons which led to Fateh’s failure in the political arena? Can feminism offer a comprehensive framework for women, regardless of their social and ideological affiliations? Can a discourse of a shared common ground for women help them to realize and agree upon their common goals? Is paternalism only present in Islamist ideology, and not in nationalism and patriotism? What do we mean by feminism? Is there only one feminism, or several feminisms? What do we mean by Islamis it the movement known by this name or the religion, the philosophy, or the legal system? We need to go to the bottom of these issues and consider them carefully, and we must agree upon them so that we can later decide, as feminists, if our criticism of paternalism should be directed at religion (вяра), which should be confined to the heart of the believer and not be allowed to take control of the world at large, or the jurisprudence, which relates to different schools of faith which explain the legal system contained in the Quran and the sayings of the Prophetthe Sunnah.

ISLAMIST WOMEN’S ACTIVISM IN OCCUPIED PALESTINE

Interviews by Khaled Amayreh

Interview with Sameera Al-Halayka

Sameera Al-Halayka is an elected member of the Palestinian Legislative Council. She was

born in the village of Shoyoukh near Hebron in 1964. She has a BA in Sharia (Islamic

Jurisprudence) from Hebron University. She worked as a journalist from 1996 to 2006 when

she entered the Palestinian Legislative Council as an elected member in the 2006 Избори.

She is married and has seven children.

Q: There is a general impression in some western countries that women receive

inferior treatment within Islamic resistance groups, such as Hamas. Is this true?

How are women activists treated in Hamas?
Rights and duties of Muslim women emanate first and foremost from Islamic Sharia or law.

They are not voluntary or charitable acts or gestures we receive from Hamas or anyone

else. Thus, as far as political involvement and activism is concerned, women generally have

the same rights and duties as men. After all, women make up at least 50 per cent of

society. In a certain sense, they are the entire society because they give birth to, and raise,

the new generation.

Therefore, I can say that the status of women within Hamas is in full conformity with her

status in Islam itself. This means that she is a full partner at all levels. Indeed, it would be

unfair and unjust for an Islamic (or Islamist if you prefer) woman to be partner in suffering

while she is excluded from the decision-making process. This is why the woman’s role in

Hamas has always been pioneering.

Q: Do you feel that the emergence of women’s political activism within Hamas is

a natural development that is compatible with classical Islamic concepts

regarding the status and role of women, or is it merely a necessary response to

pressures of modernity and requirements of political action and of the continued

Israeli occupation?

There is no text in Islamic jurisprudence nor in Hamas’ charter which impedes women from

political participation. I believe the opposite is truethere are numerous Quranic verses

and sayings of the Prophet Muhammed urging women to be active in politics and public

issues affecting Muslims. But it is also true that for women, as it is for men, political activism

is not compulsory but voluntary, and is largely decided in light of each woman’s abilities,

qualifications and individual circumstances. None the less, showing concern for public

matters is mandatory upon each and every Muslim man and woman. The Prophet

Muhammed said: “He who doesn’t show concern for the affairs of Muslims is not a Muslim.”

Moreover, Palestinian Islamist women have to take all objective factors on the ground into

account when deciding whether to join politics or get involved in political activism.


IRANIAN WOMEN AFTER THE ISLAMIC REVOLUTION

Ansiia Khaz Allii


More than thirty years have passed since the triumph of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, yet there remain a number of questions and ambiguities about the way the Islamic Republic and its laws deal with contemporary problems and current circumstances, particularly with regard to women and women’s rights. This short paper will shed light on these issues and study the current position of women in various spheres, comparing this to the situation prior to the Islamic Revolution. Reliable and authenticated data has been used wherever possible. The introduction summarises a number of theoretical and legal studies which provide the basis for the subsequent more practical analysis and are the sources from where the data has been obtained.
The first section considers attitudes of the leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran towards women and women’s rights, and then takes a comprehensive look at the laws promulgated since the Islamic Revolution concerning women and their position in society. The second section considers women’s cultural and educational developments since the Revolution and compares these to the pre-revolutionary situation. The third section looks at women’s political, social and economic participation and considers both quantative and qualitative aspects of their employment. The fourth section then examines questions of the family, the relationship between women and the family, and the family’s role in limiting or increasing women’s rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Women in Islam

Амира Бургул

Despite major consensus amongst a large number of philosophers and historians that the

principles and teachings of Islam caused a fundamental change in the position of women

compared to the prevailing situation in countries in both East and West at the time, and despite

the agreement of a large number of thinkers and legislators that women during the time of the

Prophet (PBUH) were granted rights and legal privileges not granted by man-made laws until

recently, propaganda campaigns by Westerners and people with a Westernised perspective

consistently accuse Islam of being unjust to women, of imposing restrictions on them, и

marginalising their role in society.

This situation has been made worse by the atmosphere and conditions prevalent across the

Muslim world, where ignorance and poverty have produced a limited understanding of religion

and family and human relations which occlude justice and a civilised way of life, particularly

between men and women. The small group of people who have been granted opportunities to

acquire an education and abilities have also fallen into the trap of believing that achieving justice

for women and capitalising on their abilities is dependent upon rejecting religion and piety and

adopting a Western way of life, as a result of their superficial studies of Islam on the one hand

and the effect of life’s diversions on the other.

Only a very small number of people from these two groups have managed to escape and cast off

their cloaks of ignorance and tradition. These people have studied their heritage in great depth

and detail, and have looked at the results of Western experiences with an open mind. They have

distinguished between the wheat and the chaff in both the past and the present, and have dealt

scientifically and objectively with the problems which have arisen. They have refuted the false

charges made against Islam with eloquent arguments, and have admitted to concealed flaws.

They have also re-examined the sayings and customs of the Infallible Ones in order to

distinguish between what is established and holy and what has been altered and distorted.

The responsible behaviour of this group has established new directions and new ways of dealing

with the question of women in Islamic societies. They have clearly not yet tackled all problems

and found final solutions for the many legislative gaps and deficiencies, but they have laid the

ground for the emergence of a new model for Muslim women, who are both strong and

committed to the legal and effective foundations of their society.

With the triumph of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and the blessing of its leaders, which is the

main religious authority for the participation of women and their effective political and social

participation, the scope for strong debate over women in Islam has been significantly expanded.

The model of Muslim women in Iran has spread to Islamic resistance movements in Lebanon,

Palestine other Arab countries and even the Western world, and as a result, propaganda

campaigns against Islam have abated to some extent.

The emergence of Salafi Islamic movements such as the Taliban in Afghanistan and similar

Salafi movements in Saudi Arabia and North Africa, and their fanatical way of treating women,

have provoked nervous onlookers fearing an Islamic resurgence into launching new propaganda

campaigns accusing Islam of inspiring terrorism and being backwards and unjust towards

women.

размазване: How Islamophobes spread fear, bigotry and misinformation

FAIR

Джули Холар

Jim Naureckas

Making Islamophobia Mainstream:
How Muslim-bashers broadcast their bigotry
A remarkable thing happened at the National Book Critics Circle (NBCC) nominations in February 2007: The normally highbrow and tolerant group nominated for best book in the field of criticism a book widely viewed as denigrating an entire religious group.
The nomination of Bruce Bawer’s While Europe Slept: How Radical Islam Is Destroying the West From Within didn’t pass without controversy. Past nominee Eliot Weinberger denounced the book at the NBCC’s annual gathering, calling it ‘‘racism as criticism’’ (Ню Йорк Таймс, 2/8/07). NBCC board president John Freeman wrote on the group’s blog (Critical Mass, 2/4/07): ‘‘I have never been
more embarrassed by a choice than I have been with Bruce Bawer’s While Europe Slept…. Its hyperventilated rhetoric tips from actual critique into Islamophobia.’’
Though it didn’t ultimately win the award, While Europe Slept’s recognition in the highest literary circles was emblematic of a mainstreaming of Islamophobia, not just in American publishing but in the broader media. This report takes a fresh look at Islamophobia in today’s media and its perpetratrators, outlining some of the behind-the-scenes connections that are rarely explored in media. The report also provides four snapshots, or “case studies,” describing how Islamophobes continue to manipulate media to in order to paint Muslims with a broad, hateful brush. Our aim is to document smearcasting: the public writings and appearances of Islamophobic activists and pundits who intentionally and regularly spread fear, bigotry and misinformation. The term “Islamophobia” refers to hostility toward Islam and Muslims that tends to dehumanize an entire faith, portraying it as fundamentally alien and attributing to it an inherent, essential set of negative traits such as irrationality, intolerance and violence. And not unlike the charges made in the classical document of anti-Semitism, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, some of Islamophobia’s more virulent expressionslike While Europe Sleptinclude evocations of Islamic designs to dominate the West.
Islamic institutions and Muslims, of course, should be subject to the same kind of scrutiny and criticism as anyone else. For instance, when a Norwegian Islamic Council debates whether gay men and lesbians should be executed, one may forcefully condemn individuals or groups sharing that opinion without pulling all European Muslims into it, as did Bawer’s Pajamas Media post (8/7/08),
“European Muslims Debate: Should Gays Be Executed?
Similarly, extremists who justify their violent actions by invoking some particular interpretation of Islam can be criticized without implicating the enormously diverse population of Muslims around the world. After all, reporters managed to cover the Oklahoma City bombing by Timothy McVeighan adherent of the racist Christian Identity sectwithout resorting to generalized statements about “Christian terrorism.” Likewise, media have covered acts of terrorism by fanatics who are Jewishfor instance the Hebron massacre carried out by Baruch Goldstein (Extra!, 5/6/94)–without implicating the entirety of Judaism.

The Totalitarianism of Jihadist Islamism and its Challenge to Europe and to Islam

Басо тиби

When reading the majority of texts that comprise the vast literature that has been published by self-proclaimed pundits on political Islam, it is easy to miss the fact that a new movement has arisen. Further, this literature fails to explain in a satisfactory manner the fact that the ideology which drives it is based on a particular interpretation of Islam, and that it is thus a politicised religious faith,
not a secular one. The only book in which political Islam is addressed as a form of totalitarianism is the one by Paul Berman, Terror and Liberalism (2003). The author is, however, not an expert, cannot read Islamic sources, and therefore relies on the selective use of one or two secondary sources, thus failing to grasp the phenomenon.
One of the reasons for such shortcomings is the fact that most of those who seek to inform us about the ‘jihadist threat’ – and Berman is typical of this scholarship – not only lack the language skills to read the sources produced by the ideologues of political Islam, but also lack knowledge about the cultural dimension of the movement. This new totalitarian movement is in many ways a novelty
in the history of politics since it has its roots in two parallel and related phenomena: first, the culturalisation of politics which leads to politics being conceptualised as a cultural system (a view pioneered by Clifford Geertz); and second the return of the sacred, or ‘re-enchantment’ of the world, as a reaction to its intensive secularisation resulting from globalisation.
The analysis of political ideologies that are based on religions, and that can exert appeal as a political religion as a consequence of this, involves a social science understanding of the role of religion played by world politics, especially after the bi-polar system of the Cold War has given way to a multi-polar world. In a project conducted at the Hannah Arendt Institute for the application of totalitarianism to the study of political religions, I proposed the distinction between secular ideologies that act as a substitute for religion, and religious ideologies based on genuine religious faith, which is the case in religious fundamentalism (see note
24). Another project on ‘Political Religion’, carried out at the University of Basel, has made clearer the point that new approaches to politics become necessary once a religious faith becomes clothed in a political garb.Drawing on the authoritative sources of political Islam, this article suggests that the great variety of organisations inspired by Islamist ideology are to be conceptualised both as political religions and as political movements. The unique quality of political Islam lies is the fact that it is based on a transnational religion (see note 26).

Islam, Political Islam and America

Арабска прозрение

Is “Brotherhood” with America Possible?

khalil al-anani

“there is no chance of communicating with any U.S. administration so long as the United States maintains its long-standing view of Islam as a real danger, a view that puts the United States in the same boat as the Zionist enemy. We have no pre-conceived notions concerning the American people or the U.S. society and its civic organizations and think tanks. We have no problem communicating with the American people but no adequate efforts are being made to bring us closer,” said Dr. Issam al-Iryan, chief of the political department of the Muslim Brotherhood in a phone interview.
Al-Iryan’s words sum up the Muslim Brotherhood’s views of the American people and the U.S. government. Other members of the Muslim Brotherhood would agree, as would the late Hassan al-Banna, who founded the group in 1928. Al- Banna viewed the West mostly as a symbol of moral decay. Other Salafis – an Islamic school of thought that relies on ancestors as exemplary models – have taken the same view of the United States, but lack the ideological flexibility espoused by the Muslim Brotherhood. While the Muslim Brotherhood believes in engaging the Americans in civil dialogue, other extremist groups see no point in dialogue and maintain that force is the only way of dealing with the United States.

Notes on the Isocratic Legacy and Islamic Political Thought: The Example of Education

JAMES MUIR

An unfortunate feature of human history is the tendency for religious differences and con icts to nourish themselves with the poisonous brew of ignorance and prejudice. While much can sometimes be done to reduce prejudice, it seems to me that scholars and educators ought to be primarily concerned with the more fundamental and enduring goal of reducing ignorance. One’s success in reducing ignorance—including one’s own—will depend upon one’s motives.
The study of Islamic educational philosophy may be motivated by current practical concerns: the desire of British Muslims to have Islamic schools, whether funded privately or by the state, is one topical example. From the perspective of educational philosophy, however, such a motive is exceedingly narrow, circumscribed by the concepts and categories of the local political disputes of the moment. For those motivated by a desire for knowledge and understanding of a tradition outside their own, it is most doubtful that any study of Islamic philosophy restricted by current practical concerns can be at all productive. There is no simple correspondence between knowledge and “relevance.”
There must, however, be some connection between two traditions of thought and practice if there is to be a point of departure, and a point of entry, which allows the scholar to step from one tradition to another. The legacy of Isocrates may constitute one such point of departure, which will help us to understand the relation between two traditions, the classical Greek and the Islamic. The dominance of the Isocratic legacy in Western education is well established and widely known among historians, classicists
and political philosophers, although awareness of it has only just begun to surface among educationists.2 Similarly, the Isocratic legacy to education (and the rich tradition of Arabic Platonism in philosophy) has in uenced Islamic thought, though in ways that are
still not yet well understood. The intention of this paper is to suggest that a modiŽ ed form of the Isocratic educational tradition is a fundamental component of Islamic political thought, namely, Islamic educational thought. This general wording of the intention of this paper in terms of Islamic political thought may give rise to a misunderstanding. Islam, of course, is regarded by its adherents as a uniŽ ed and universal system of belief and behaviour.

Liberal Democracy and Political Islam: the Search for Common Ground.

Мостафа Бенхенда

This paper seeks to establish a dialogue between democratic and Islamic political theories.1 The interplay between them is puzzling: например, in order to explain the relationship existing between democracy and their conception of the ideal Islamic political
regime, the Pakistani scholar Abu ‘Ala Maududi coined the neologism “theodemocracy” whereas the French scholar Louis Massignon suggested the oxymoron “secular theocracy”. These expressions suggest that some aspects of democracy are evaluated positively and others are judged negatively. For example, Muslim scholars and activists often endorse the principle of accountability of rulers, which is a defining feature of democracy. On the contrary, they often reject the principle of separation between religion and the state, which is often considered to be part of democracy (at least, of democracy as known in the United States today). Given this mixed assessment of democratic principles, it seems interesting to determine the conception of democracy underlying Islamic political models. In other words, we should try to find out what is democratic in “theodemocracy”. To that end, among the impressive diversity and plurality of Islamic traditions of normative political thought, we essentially focus on the broad current of thought going back to Abu ‘Ala Maududi and the Egyptian intellectual Sayyed Qutb.8 This particular trend of thought is interesting because in the Muslim world, it lies at the basis of some of the most challenging oppositions to the diffusion of the values originating from the West. Based on religious values, this trend elaborated a political model alternative to liberal democracy. Broadly speaking, the conception of democracy included in this Islamic political model is procedural. With some differences, this conception is inspired by democratic theories advocated by some constitutionalists and political scientists.10 It is thin and minimalist, up to a certain point. For example, it does not rely on any notion of popular sovereignty and it does not require any separation between religion and politics. The first aim of this paper is to elaborate this minimalist conception. We make a detailed restatement of it in order to isolate this conception from its moral (liberal) foundations, which are controversial from the particular Islamic viewpoint considered here. Indeed, the democratic process is usually derived from a principle of personal autonomy, which is not endorsed by these Islamic theories.11 Here, we show that such principle is not necessary to justify a democratic process.

On the American Constitution from the Perspective of the Qur’an and the Madinah Covenant

Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad

This paper is by no means an exhaustive comparison of the American Constitution with the Qur’an and the Madinah Covenant. Rather, it explores the kinds of insights that a comparison between these two documents may suggest. Accordingly, the constitutional topics selected are those in which the author or the commentators on earlier drafts perceived an assessment within the Islamic sources.4 This paper should be taken as an invitation for future studies with more systematic comparisons. In addition to rational inference from the text of the Qur’an and of the Madinah Covenant, I shall draw on the views of the Prophet’s Companions as recorded in the leading Hadith books. Analogously, the views of the Founding Fathers of the American Republic on constitutional
matters are articulated in The Federalist Papers.We shall begin by reviewing the Madinah Covenant, and then evaluate the Constitution’s goals as expressed in the preamble. After that, we shall explore a variety of topics in the main body of the text that lend themselves to the examination proposed here. In particular, these are the roles of the branches of government according to the separation of powers, the role of elections in determining the next head of state, the penalty for treason, the existence of the slave trade and racism, the republican form of government, the provisions for amending the Constitution, religious tests, and the Bill of Rights. Finally, we consider the Madisonian arguments on how the Constitution may be considered a model for avoiding fitnah.
The Madinah Covenant That Muslims attach great significance to their organization as a political community can be seen in the fact that their calendar is dated neither from the birth nor the death of the Prophet, но от създаването на първата мюсюлманска държава в град-държава Медина през 622. Преди основаването на Медина, арабите нямаха държава, която да „установи справедливост, застраховате вътрешно
спокойствие, осигуряват обща отбрана, насърчаване на общото благосъстояние, и осигурете благословиите на свободата …”Обичайът по онова време беше, че онези, които бяха твърде слаби, за да се защитят, станаха клиенти на покровител (пазач). Мохамед, себе си сирак, е отгледан под закрилата на чичо си Абу Талиб.
След смъртта на чичо си в 619, Мохамед получи покана от враждуващите арабски племена на Ятриб да управляват там. Веднъж в Ятриб, той сключи договор с всички негови жители, независимо дали са приели исляма или не. Дори евреите, живеещи в покрайнините на града, се абонираха за него.

ИСЛАМ И ЛИБЕРАЛНА ДЕМОКРАЦИЯ

Робин Райт
Of all the challenges facing democracy in the 1990s, one of the greatest lies in the Islamic world. Only a handful of the more than four dozen predominantly Muslim countries have made significant strides toward establishing democratic systems. Among this handfulincluding Albania, Bangladesh, Йордания, Kyrgyzstan, Ливан, Mali, Пакистан, and Turkeynot one has yet achieved full, stable, or secure democracy. And the largest single regional bloc holding out against the global trend toward political pluralism comprises the Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa.
Yet the resistance to political change associated with the Islamic bloc is not necessarily a function of the Muslim faith. Indeed, the evidence indicates quite the reverse. Управляващи в някои от най -антидемократичните режими в ислямския свят–като Бруней, Индонезия, Ирак, Оман, Катар, Сирия, и Туркменистан–са светски автократи, които отказват да споделят властта с братята си.
Като цяло, пречките пред политическия плурализъм в ислямските страни не са за разлика от проблемите, с които се сблъскаха по -рано в други части на света: светски идеологии като баасизма в Ирак и Сирия, Панкасила в Индонезия, или продължителният комунизъм в някои бивши съветски държави от Централна Азия не предизвика истинска опозиция. По ирония на съдбата, много от тези идеологии са адаптирани от Запада; Баасизъм, например, е вдъхновен от европейския социализъм от 30 -те и 40 -те години на миналия век. Твърдият правителствен контрол върху всичко - от комуникациите в Саудитска Арабия и Бруней до чуждестранните посетители в Узбекистан и Индонезия, също така изолира хората си от демократичните идеи и дебатите за овластяването на хората. В най -големите и най -бедните мюсюлмански страни, освен това, общи проблеми [Крайна страница 64] развиващите се държави, от неграмотност и болести до бедност, направете простото оцеляване приоритет и превърнете демократичната политика в привиден лукс. Finally, като техните съседи немюсюлмани в Азия и Африка, повечето мюсюлмански общества нямат местна история на демокрацията, върху която да се черпят. Тъй като демокрацията е разцъфнала в западните държави през последните три века, Мюсюлманските общества обикновено са живели при колониални владетели, царе, или племенни и кланови водачи.
In other words, нито ислямът, нито неговата култура са основната пречка за политическата модерност, even if undemocratic rulers sometimes use Islam as their excuse. 1 In Saudi Arabia, например, the ruling House of Saud relied on Wahhabism, a puritanical brand of Sunni Islam, first to unite the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula and then to justify dynastic rule. Like other monotheistic religions, Islam offers wide-ranging and sometimes contradictory instruction. In Saudi Arabia, Islam’s tenets have been selectively shaped to sustain an authoritarian monarchy.

Islam and the New Political Landscape

Les Back, Майкъл Кийт, Азра Хан,
Kalbir Shukra and John Solomos

IN THE wake of the attack on the World Trade Center on 11 Септември 2001, and the Madrid and London bombings of 2004 и 2005, литература, която се занимава с формите и модалностите на религиозното изразяване - особено ислямското религиозно изразяване - процъфтява в полусребърните региони, които свързват основната социална наука с дизайна на социалната политика, мозъчни тръстове и журналистика. Голяма част от работата се опитва да определи нагласите или предразположеностите на мюсюлманското население в определено място на напрежение като Лондон или Великобритания (Барнс, 2006; Ethnos Consultancy, 2005; GFK, 2006; GLA, 2006; Популус, 2006), или критикува определени форми на намеса в социалната политика (Ярък, 2006а; Mirza et al., 2007). Изследванията на ислямизма и джихадизма създадоха особен акцент върху синкретичните и сложни връзки между ислямската религиозна вяра и формите на социално движение и политическа мобилизация (Хусейн, 2007; Кепел, 2004, 2006; Макрой, 2006; Невил-Джоунс и др., 2006, 2007; Филипс, 2006; Рой, 2004, 2006). Конвенционално, аналитичният фокус е изтъкнал културата на исляма, системите на вярвания на вярващите, и историческите и географски траектории на мюсюлманското население по света като цяло и в частност на „Запада“ (Абас, 2005; Ансари, 2002; Ийд и Гарбин, 2002; Хюсеин, 2006; Modood, 2005; Рамадан, 1999, 2005). В тази статия акцентът е различен. Ние твърдим, че изследванията на ислямското политическо участие трябва да бъдат контекстуализирани внимателно, без да се прибягва до големи общи за културата и вярата. Това е така, защото и културата, и вярата са структурирани от и на свой ред структурират културата, институционални и делиберативни пейзажи, чрез които те се артикулират. В случая с британския опит, скритите следи от християнството при формирането на социалната държава през миналия век, бързо променящата се картография на политическите пространства и ролята на „религиозните организации“ в преструктурирането на социалното осигуряване генерират материалния социален контекст, определящ възможностите и очертанията на новите форми на политическо участие.

Принципът на движението в структурата на исляма

Д-р. Мохамед Икбал

Като културно движение ислямът отхвърля стария статичен възглед за Вселената, и достига динамичен изглед. Като емоционална система на обединение тя признава стойността на индивида като такъв, и отхвърля кръвната връзка като основа на човешкото единство. Кръвната връзка е земнокоренен. Търсенето на чисто психологическа основа на човешкото единство става възможно само с възприятието, че целият човешки живот е духовен в своя произход.1 Такова възприятие създава свежи лоялности, без никакви церемонии, които да ги поддържат живи, и дава възможност на човека да се еманципира от земята. Християнството, което първоначално се е появило като монашески орден, е било изпробвано от Константин като система за обединение.2 Неуспехът му да работи като такава система подтиква император Юлиан3 да се върне при старите богове на Рим, на които той се опитва да постави философски интерпретации. Съвременният историк на цивилизацията по този начин изобразява състоянието на цивилизования свят за времето, когато ислямът се появява на сцената на историята: Тогава изглеждаше, че великата цивилизация, за изграждането на която са били необходими четири хиляди години, е на ръба на разпадането, и че човечеството вероятно ще се върне към това състояние на варварство, където всяко племе и секта е против следващото, и редът и редът бяха неизвестни . . . The
старите племенни санкции бяха загубили своята сила. Следователно старите имперски методи вече няма да действат. Новите санкции, създадени от
Християнството работеше разделение и унищожение вместо единство и ред. Беше време, изпълнено с трагедия. Цивилизация, като гигантско дърво, чиято зеленина е обхванала света и чиито клони са донесли златните плодове на изкуството, науката и литературата, стоеше треперещ, багажникът му вече не е жив с течащия сок на преданост и благоговение, но изгнил до основи, разкъсани от военните бури, и държани заедно само от въжетата на древните обичаи и закони, това може да избухне всеки момент. Имаше ли някаква емоционална култура, която би могла да бъде внесена, да събере човечеството още веднъж в единство и да спаси цивилизацията? Тази култура трябва да е нещо от нов тип, защото старите санкции и церемонии бяха мъртви, а изграждането на други от същия вид би било работа
векове. “След това писателят продължава да ни казва, че светът е имал нужда от нова култура, която да заеме мястото на културата на трона, и системите за обединение, които се основават на кръвна връзка.
Това е удивително, добавя той, че такава култура е трябвало да възникне от Арабия точно по времето, когато е била най -необходима. Има, however, нищо невероятно във феномена. Светът-живот интуитивно вижда собствените си нужди, и в критични моменти определя собствената си посока. Ето какво, на езика на религията, ние наричаме пророческо откровение. Естествено е, че ислямът е трябвало да проникне в съзнанието на прост народ, недокоснат от някоя от древните култури, и заема географско положение, където три континента се срещат заедно. Новата култура намира основата на световното единство в принципа на Tauhâd.’5 Ислям, като държавна власт, е само практическо средство за превръщането на този принцип в жив фактор в интелектуалния и емоционалния живот на човечеството. Изисква лоялност към Бога, не на тронове. И тъй като Бог е върховната духовна основа на целия живот, лоялността към Бога практически се равнява на лоялността на човека към неговата идеална природа. Крайната духовна основа на целия живот, както е замислено от исляма, е вечен и се разкрива в разнообразие и промяна. Обществото, основано на такова схващане за Реалността, трябва да се примири, в живота си, категориите постоянство и промяна. Тя трябва да притежава вечни принципи за регулиране на колективния си живот, защото вечното ни дава опора в света на вечната промяна.

Ислямска реформация

Аднан Хан

Италианският премиер, Силвио Берлускони се похвали след събитията от 9/11:
„... трябва да сме наясно с превъзходството на нашата цивилизация, система, която гарантира

благополучие, зачитане на правата на човека и – за разлика от ислямските страни – уважение

за религиозни и политически права, система, която има своите ценности разбиране за многообразието

и толерантност ... Западът ще завладее народите, сякаш победи комунизма, дори и да е така

означава конфронтация с друга цивилизация, ислямската, остана там, където беше

1,400 преди години ... ”1

И в а 2007 доклад, деклариран от института RAND:
„Борбата, която се води в голяма част от мюсюлманския свят, по същество е война на

идеи. Резултатът от него ще определи бъдещата посока на мюсюлманския свят. "

Изграждане на умерени мюсюлмански мрежи, Институт RAND

Понятието „ислям“ (реформа) е понятие, непознато за мюсюлманите. Той никога не е съществувал през цялото време

историята на ислямската цивилизация; тя никога не е била обсъждана или дори обмисляна. Бегъл поглед към класиката

Ислямската литература ни показва, че когато класическите учени поставят основите на узула, и кодифициран

техните ислямски решения (фикх) те се стремяха само към разбирането на ислямските правила, за да

прилагайте ги. Подобна ситуация се случи, когато бяха определени правилата за хадиса, tafseer и

арабски език. Учени, мислители и интелектуалци през цялата ислямска история прекарват много време

разбиране на откровението на Аллах - Корана и прилагане на аята върху реалностите и измислено

принципи и дисциплини, за да се улесни разбирането. Следователно Коранът е в основата на

изучаването и всички развиващи се дисциплини винаги се основават на Корана. Тези, които станаха

поразени от гръцката философия като мюсюлманските философи и някои от мутазила

се смята, че са напуснали кръга на исляма, тъй като Коранът е престанал да бъде тяхната основа за изучаване. Така за

всеки мюсюлманин, който се опитва да изведе правила или да разбере каква позиция трябва да бъде заета по отношение на конкретен човек

издаването на Корана е в основата на това изследване.

Първият опит за реформиране на исляма е направен в края на 19 век. До края на

век Ума е била в продължителен период на упадък, когато глобалният баланс на силите се измести

от Халифа до Великобритания. Проблемите с монтирането обхванаха Халифата, докато Западна Европа беше

в разгара на индустриалната революция. Уммата изгуби девственото си разбиране за исляма, и

в опит да обърне упадъка, обхващащ османските (Османци) някои мюсюлмани бяха изпратени в

Запад, и в резултат на това бяха поразени от това, което видяха. Rifa’a Rafi ’al-Tahtawi от Египет (1801-1873),

при завръщането си от Париж, wrote a biographical book called Takhlis al-ibriz ila talkhis Bariz (The

Extraction of Gold, or an Overview of Paris, 1834), praising their cleanliness, love of work, and above

all social morality. He declared that we must mimic what is being done in Paris, advocating changes to

the Islamic society from liberalising women to the systems of ruling. This thought, and others like it,

marked the beginning of the reinventing trend in Islam.