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Арабскае заўтра

ДЭВІД Б. ВОТРЫМ

Кастрычніцкая 6, 1981, задумваўся як дзень святкавання ў Егіпце. Гэта адзначыла гадавіну найвялікшага моманту перамогі Егіпта ў трох араба-ізраільскіх канфліктах, калі недабрая армія краіны прасунулася праз Суэцкі канал у дні адкрыцця 1973 Вайна Ём-Кіпура і адправіла ізраільскія войскі, якія адступалі. На круты, бясхмарная раніца, Каірскі стадыён быў запоўнены егіпецкімі сем'ямі, якія прыйшлі паглядзець, як вайскоўцы расстаўляюць яго абсталяванне, Прэзідэнт Анвар эль-Садат,архітэктар вайны, задаволена назіраў, як перад ім дэфіліруюць людзі і машыны. Я быў побач, нядаўна прыбылы замежны карэспандэнт.Раптам, адзін з армейскіх грузавікоў спыніўся непасрэдна перад агляднай пляцоўкай, як толькі шэсць самалётаў "Міраж" прагрымелі над галавой у акрабатычным выкананні, роспіс неба доўгімі сцежкамі чырвонага колеру, жоўты, фіялетавы,і зялёны дым. Садат устаў, мабыць, рыхтуецца абмяняцца салютамі з чарговым кантынгентам егіпецкіх войскаў. Ён зрабіў сабе ідэальную мішэнь для чатырох забойцаў-ісламістаў, якія ўскочылі з грузавіка, штурмавалі трыбуну, і забіваў яго цела кулямі. Калі забойцы працягвалі цэлую вечнасць распыляць трыбуну сваім смяротным агнём, Я імгненна паразважаў, ці не зваліцца на зямлю і рызыкнуць быць затаптаным панічнымі гледачамі, ці застацца ў руху, і рызыкнуць прыняць заблудшую кулю. Інстынкт падказваў мне трымацца на нагах, and my sense of journalistic duty impelled me to go find out whether Sadat was alive or dead.

Islam and the Making of State Power

Сеед Валі Наср Рэза

У 1979 General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq, the military ruler of Pakistan, declared that Pakistan would become an Islamic state. Islamic values and norms would serve as the foundation of national identity, law, economy, and social relations, and would inspire all policy making. У 1980 Mahathir Muhammad, the new prime minister of Malaysia, introduced a similar broad-based plan to anchor state policy making in Islamic values, and to bring his country’s laws and economic practices in line with the teachings of Islam. Why did these rulers choose the path of “Islamization” for their countries? І як аднаразовыя свецкія посткаланіяльныя дзяржавы сталі агентамі ісламізацыі і прадвеснікамі "сапраўднай" ісламскай дзяржавы?
Малайзія і Пакістан з канца 1970-х - пачатку 1980-х гадоў прайшлі унікальны шлях да развіцця, які разыходзіцца з вопытам іншых дзяржаў Трэцяга свету. У гэтых дзвюх краінах рэлігійная ідэнтычнасць была ўбудаваная ў дзяржаўную ідэалогію, каб забяспечыць мэта і працэс развіцця ісламскімі каштоўнасцямі.
Гэта пачынанне таксама прадставіла зусім іншую карціну адносін паміж ісламам і палітыкай у мусульманскіх грамадствах. У Малайзіі і Пакістане, гэта былі дзяржаўныя інстытуты, а не ісламісцкія актывісты (тыя, хто выступае за палітычнае прачытанне ісламу; таксама вядомы як адраджэнцы альбо фундаменталісты) that have been the guardians of Islam and the defenders of its interests. This suggests a
very different dynamic in the ebbs and flow of Islamic politics—in the least pointing to the importance of the state in the vicissitudes of this phenomenon.
What to make of secular states that turn Islamic? What does such a transformation mean for the state as well as for Islamic politics?
This book grapples with these questions. This is not a comprehensive account of Malaysia’s or Pakistan’s politics, nor does it cover all aspects of Islam’s role in their societies and politics, although the analytical narrative dwells on these issues considerably. This book is rather a social scientific inquiry into the phenomenon of secular postcolonial states becoming agents of Islamization, and more broadly how culture and religion serve the needs of state power and development. The analysis here relies on theoretical discussions
in the social sciences of state behavior and the role of culture and religion therein. More important, it draws inferences from the cases under examination to make broader conclusions of interest to the disciplines.

FEMINISM BETWEEN SECULARISM AND ISLAMISM: THE CASE OF PALESTINE

Dr, Islah Jad

Legislative elections held in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in 2006 brought to power the Islamist movement Hamas, which went on to form the majority of the Palestinian Legislative Council and also the first majority Hamas government. These elections resulted in the appointment of the first female Hamas minister, who became the Minister of Women’s Affairs. Between March 2006 and June 2007, two different female Hamas ministers assumed this post, but both found it difficult to manage the Ministry since most of its employees were not Hamas members but belonged to other political parties, and most were members of Fatah, the dominant movement controlling most Palestinian Authority institutions. A tense period of struggle between the women of Hamas in the Ministry of Women’s Affairs and the female members of Fatah came to an end following Hamas’ takeover of power in the Gaza Strip and the resultant fall of its government in the West Bank – a struggle which sometimes took a violent turn. One reason later cited to explain this struggle was the difference between secular feminist discourse and Islamist discourse on women’s issues. In the Palestinian context this disagreement took on a dangerous nature as it was used to justify perpetuating the bloody political struggle, the removal of Hamas women from their positions or posts, and the political and geographical divides prevailing at the time in both the West Bank and the occupied Gaza Strip.
This struggle raises a number of important questions: should we punish the Islamist movement which has come to power, or should we consider the reasons which led to Fateh’s failure in the political arena? Can feminism offer a comprehensive framework for women, regardless of their social and ideological affiliations? Can a discourse of a shared common ground for women help them to realize and agree upon their common goals? Is paternalism only present in Islamist ideology, and not in nationalism and patriotism? What do we mean by feminism? Is there only one feminism, or several feminisms? What do we mean by Islamis it the movement known by this name or the religion, the philosophy, or the legal system? We need to go to the bottom of these issues and consider them carefully, and we must agree upon them so that we can later decide, as feminists, if our criticism of paternalism should be directed at religion (вера), which should be confined to the heart of the believer and not be allowed to take control of the world at large, or the jurisprudence, which relates to different schools of faith which explain the legal system contained in the Quran and the sayings of the Prophetthe Sunnah.

ISLAMIST WOMEN’S ACTIVISM IN OCCUPIED PALESTINE

Interviews by Khaled Amayreh

Interview with Sameera Al-Halayka

Sameera Al-Halayka is an elected member of the Palestinian Legislative Council. She was

born in the village of Shoyoukh near Hebron in 1964. She has a BA in Sharia (ісламскі

Jurisprudence) from Hebron University. She worked as a journalist from 1996 to 2006 when

she entered the Palestinian Legislative Council as an elected member in the 2006 выбары.

She is married and has seven children.

Q: There is a general impression in some western countries that women receive

inferior treatment within Islamic resistance groups, such as Hamas. Is this true?

How are women activists treated in Hamas?
Rights and duties of Muslim women emanate first and foremost from Islamic Sharia or law.

They are not voluntary or charitable acts or gestures we receive from Hamas or anyone

else. Такім чынам, as far as political involvement and activism is concerned, women generally have

the same rights and duties as men. After all, women make up at least 50 per cent of

society. In a certain sense, they are the entire society because they give birth to, and raise,

the new generation.

Таму, I can say that the status of women within Hamas is in full conformity with her

status in Islam itself. This means that she is a full partner at all levels. Сапраўды, it would be

unfair and unjust for an Islamic (or Islamist if you prefer) woman to be partner in suffering

while she is excluded from the decision-making process. This is why the woman’s role in

Hamas has always been pioneering.

Q: Do you feel that the emergence of women’s political activism within Hamas is

a natural development that is compatible with classical Islamic concepts

regarding the status and role of women, or is it merely a necessary response to

pressures of modernity and requirements of political action and of the continued

Israeli occupation?

There is no text in Islamic jurisprudence nor in Hamas’ charter which impedes women from

political participation. I believe the opposite is truethere are numerous Quranic verses

and sayings of the Prophet Muhammed urging women to be active in politics and public

issues affecting Muslims. But it is also true that for women, as it is for men, political activism

is not compulsory but voluntary, and is largely decided in light of each woman’s abilities,

qualifications and individual circumstances. None the less, showing concern for public

matters is mandatory upon each and every Muslim man and woman. The Prophet

Muhammed said: “He who doesn’t show concern for the affairs of Muslims is not a Muslim.”

Прычым, Palestinian Islamist women have to take all objective factors on the ground into

account when deciding whether to join politics or get involved in political activism.


IRANIAN WOMEN AFTER THE ISLAMIC REVOLUTION

Ansiia Каз Allii


More than thirty years have passed since the triumph of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, yet there remain a number of questions and ambiguities about the way the Islamic Republic and its laws deal with contemporary problems and current circumstances, particularly with regard to women and women’s rights. This short paper will shed light on these issues and study the current position of women in various spheres, comparing this to the situation prior to the Islamic Revolution. Reliable and authenticated data has been used wherever possible. The introduction summarises a number of theoretical and legal studies which provide the basis for the subsequent more practical analysis and are the sources from where the data has been obtained.
The first section considers attitudes of the leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran towards women and women’s rights, and then takes a comprehensive look at the laws promulgated since the Islamic Revolution concerning women and their position in society. The second section considers women’s cultural and educational developments since the Revolution and compares these to the pre-revolutionary situation. The third section looks at women’s political, social and economic participation and considers both quantative and qualitative aspects of their employment. The fourth section then examines questions of the family, the relationship between women and the family, and the family’s role in limiting or increasing women’s rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Women in Islam

Amira Burghul

Despite major consensus amongst a large number of philosophers and historians that the

principles and teachings of Islam caused a fundamental change in the position of women

compared to the prevailing situation in countries in both East and West at the time, and despite

the agreement of a large number of thinkers and legislators that women during the time of the

Prophet (PBUH) were granted rights and legal privileges not granted by man-made laws until

recently, propaganda campaigns by Westerners and people with a Westernised perspective

consistently accuse Islam of being unjust to women, of imposing restrictions on them, і

marginalising their role in society.

This situation has been made worse by the atmosphere and conditions prevalent across the

Muslim world, where ignorance and poverty have produced a limited understanding of religion

and family and human relations which occlude justice and a civilised way of life, асабліва

between men and women. The small group of people who have been granted opportunities to

acquire an education and abilities have also fallen into the trap of believing that achieving justice

for women and capitalising on their abilities is dependent upon rejecting religion and piety and

adopting a Western way of life, as a result of their superficial studies of Islam on the one hand

and the effect of life’s diversions on the other.

Only a very small number of people from these two groups have managed to escape and cast off

their cloaks of ignorance and tradition. These people have studied their heritage in great depth

and detail, and have looked at the results of Western experiences with an open mind. They have

distinguished between the wheat and the chaff in both the past and the present, and have dealt

scientifically and objectively with the problems which have arisen. They have refuted the false

charges made against Islam with eloquent arguments, and have admitted to concealed flaws.

They have also re-examined the sayings and customs of the Infallible Ones in order to

distinguish between what is established and holy and what has been altered and distorted.

The responsible behaviour of this group has established new directions and new ways of dealing

with the question of women in Islamic societies. They have clearly not yet tackled all problems

and found final solutions for the many legislative gaps and deficiencies, but they have laid the

ground for the emergence of a new model for Muslim women, who are both strong and

committed to the legal and effective foundations of their society.

With the triumph of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and the blessing of its leaders, which is the

main religious authority for the participation of women and their effective political and social

participation, the scope for strong debate over women in Islam has been significantly expanded.

The model of Muslim women in Iran has spread to Islamic resistance movements in Lebanon,

Palestine other Arab countries and even the Western world, and as a result, propaganda

campaigns against Islam have abated to some extent.

The emergence of Salafi Islamic movements such as the Taliban in Afghanistan and similar

Salafi movements in Saudi Arabia and North Africa, and their fanatical way of treating women,

have provoked nervous onlookers fearing an Islamic resurgence into launching new propaganda

campaigns accusing Islam of inspiring terrorism and being backwards and unjust towards

women.

smearcasting: How Islamophobes spread fear, bigotry and misinformation

FAIR

Джулі Hollar

Джым Наерекас

Making Islamophobia Mainstream:
How Muslim-bashers broadcast their bigotry
A remarkable thing happened at the National Book Critics Circle (NBCC) nominations in February 2007: The normally highbrow and tolerant group nominated for best book in the field of criticism a book widely viewed as denigrating an entire religious group.
The nomination of Bruce Bawer’s While Europe Slept: How Radical Islam Is Destroying the West From Within didn’t pass without controversy. Past nominee Eliot Weinberger denounced the book at the NBCC’s annual gathering, calling it ‘‘racism as criticism’’ (Нью-Ёрк Таймс, 2/8/07). NBCC board president John Freeman wrote on the group’s blog (Critical Mass, 2/4/07): ‘‘I have never been
more embarrassed by a choice than I have been with Bruce Bawer’s While Europe Slept…. Its hyperventilated rhetoric tips from actual critique into Islamophobia.’’
Though it didn’t ultimately win the award, While Europe Slept’s recognition in the highest literary circles was emblematic of a mainstreaming of Islamophobia, not just in American publishing but in the broader media. This report takes a fresh look at Islamophobia in today’s media and its perpetratrators, outlining some of the behind-the-scenes connections that are rarely explored in media. The report also provides four snapshots, or “case studies,” describing how Islamophobes continue to manipulate media to in order to paint Muslims with a broad, hateful brush. Our aim is to document smearcasting: the public writings and appearances of Islamophobic activists and pundits who intentionally and regularly spread fear, bigotry and misinformation. The term “Islamophobia” refers to hostility toward Islam and Muslims that tends to dehumanize an entire faith, portraying it as fundamentally alien and attributing to it an inherent, essential set of negative traits such as irrationality, intolerance and violence. And not unlike the charges made in the classical document of anti-Semitism, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, some of Islamophobia’s more virulent expressionslike While Europe Sleptinclude evocations of Islamic designs to dominate the West.
Islamic institutions and Muslims, канешне, should be subject to the same kind of scrutiny and criticism as anyone else. For instance, when a Norwegian Islamic Council debates whether gay men and lesbians should be executed, one may forcefully condemn individuals or groups sharing that opinion without pulling all European Muslims into it, as did Bawer’s Pajamas Media post (8/7/08),
“European Muslims Debate: Should Gays Be Executed?
Дакладна, extremists who justify their violent actions by invoking some particular interpretation of Islam can be criticized without implicating the enormously diverse population of Muslims around the world. After all, reporters managed to cover the Oklahoma City bombing by Timothy McVeighan adherent of the racist Christian Identity sectwithout resorting to generalized statements about “Christian terrorism.” Likewise, media have covered acts of terrorism by fanatics who are Jewishfor instance the Hebron massacre carried out by Baruch Goldstein (Extra!, 5/6/94)–without implicating the entirety of Judaism.

The Totalitarianism of Jihadist Islamism and its Challenge to Europe and to Islam

Basso Цібі

When reading the majority of texts that comprise the vast literature that has been published by self-proclaimed pundits on political Islam, it is easy to miss the fact that a new movement has arisen. Further, this literature fails to explain in a satisfactory manner the fact that the ideology which drives it is based on a particular interpretation of Islam, and that it is thus a politicised religious faith,
not a secular one. The only book in which political Islam is addressed as a form of totalitarianism is the one by Paul Berman, Terror and Liberalism (2003). The author is, Аднак, not an expert, cannot read Islamic sources, and therefore relies on the selective use of one or two secondary sources, thus failing to grasp the phenomenon.
Адной з прычын такіх недахопаў з'яўляецца той факт, што большасць тых, хто імкнецца паведаміць нам пра "джыхадысцкую пагрозу" - а Берман характэрны для гэтай стыпендыі, - не толькі не валодае моўнымі навыкамі для чытання крыніц, якія ствараюцца ідэолагамі палітычнай Іслам, але таксама не хапае ведаў аб культурным вымярэнні руху. Гэты новы таталітарны рух шмат у чым з'яўляецца навінкай
у гісторыі палітыкі, паколькі яна бярэ свае карані ў двух паралельных і звязаных паміж сабой з'явах: першы, культуралізацыя палітыкі, якая прыводзіць да таго, што палітыка асэнсоўваецца як культурная сістэма (погляд, наватарам якога стаў Кліфард Герц); і па-другое, вяртанне святога, альбо "перачараванне" свету, as a reaction to its intensive secularisation resulting from globalisation.
The analysis of political ideologies that are based on religions, and that can exert appeal as a political religion as a consequence of this, involves a social science understanding of the role of religion played by world politics, especially after the bi-polar system of the Cold War has given way to a multi-polar world. In a project conducted at the Hannah Arendt Institute for the application of totalitarianism to the study of political religions, I proposed the distinction between secular ideologies that act as a substitute for religion, and religious ideologies based on genuine religious faith, which is the case in religious fundamentalism (see note
24). Another project on ‘Political Religion’, carried out at the University of Basel, has made clearer the point that new approaches to politics become necessary once a religious faith becomes clothed in a political garb.Drawing on the authoritative sources of political Islam, this article suggests that the great variety of organisations inspired by Islamist ideology are to be conceptualised both as political religions and as political movements. The unique quality of political Islam lies is the fact that it is based on a transnational religion (see note 26).

Islam, Political Islam and America

араб Insight

Is “Brotherhood” with America Possible?

khalil al-anani

“there is no chance of communicating with any U.S. administration so long as the United States maintains its long-standing view of Islam as a real danger, a view that puts the United States in the same boat as the Zionist enemy. We have no pre-conceived notions concerning the American people or the U.S. society and its civic organizations and think tanks. We have no problem communicating with the American people but no adequate efforts are being made to bring us closer,” said Dr. Issam al-Iryan, chief of the political department of the Muslim Brotherhood in a phone interview.
Al-Iryan’s words sum up the Muslim Brotherhood’s views of the American people and the U.S. government. Other members of the Muslim Brotherhood would agree, as would the late Hassan al-Banna, who founded the group in 1928. Al- Banna viewed the West mostly as a symbol of moral decay. Other Salafis – an Islamic school of thought that relies on ancestors as exemplary models – have taken the same view of the United States, but lack the ideological flexibility espoused by the Muslim Brotherhood. While the Muslim Brotherhood believes in engaging the Americans in civil dialogue, other extremist groups see no point in dialogue and maintain that force is the only way of dealing with the United States.

Notes on the Isocratic Legacy and Islamic Political Thought: The Example of Education

Джэймс MUIR

An unfortunate feature of human history is the tendency for religious differences and con icts to nourish themselves with the poisonous brew of ignorance and prejudice. While much can sometimes be done to reduce prejudice, it seems to me that scholars and educators ought to be primarily concerned with the more fundamental and enduring goal of reducing ignorance. One’s success in reducing ignorance—including one’s own—will depend upon one’s motives.
The study of Islamic educational philosophy may be motivated by current practical concerns: the desire of British Muslims to have Islamic schools, whether funded privately or by the state, is one topical example. From the perspective of educational philosophy, Аднак, such a motive is exceedingly narrow, circumscribed by the concepts and categories of the local political disputes of the moment. For those motivated by a desire for knowledge and understanding of a tradition outside their own, it is most doubtful that any study of Islamic philosophy restricted by current practical concerns can be at all productive. There is no simple correspondence between knowledge and “relevance.”
There must, Аднак, be some connection between two traditions of thought and practice if there is to be a point of departure, and a point of entry, which allows the scholar to step from one tradition to another. The legacy of Isocrates may constitute one such point of departure, which will help us to understand the relation between two traditions, the classical Greek and the Islamic. The dominance of the Isocratic legacy in Western education is well established and widely known among historians, classicists
and political philosophers, although awareness of it has only just begun to surface among educationists.2 Similarly, the Isocratic legacy to education (and the rich tradition of Arabic Platonism in philosophy) has in uenced Islamic thought, though in ways that are
still not yet well understood. The intention of this paper is to suggest that a modiŽ ed form of the Isocratic educational tradition is a fundamental component of Islamic political thought, а менавіта, Islamic educational thought. This general wording of the intention of this paper in terms of Islamic political thought may give rise to a misunderstanding. Islam, канешне, is regarded by its adherents as a uniŽ ed and universal system of belief and behaviour.

Лібэральная дэмакратыя і палітычны іслам: Пошукі Common Ground.

Mostapha Benhenda

Гэты дакумент накіраваны на ўсталяванне дыялогу паміж дэмакратычнай і ісламскай палітычнай theories.1 ўзаемадзеяння паміж імі загадкавым: напрыклад, для таго, каб растлумачыць адносіны, якія існуюць паміж дэмакратыяй і іх канцэпцыі ідэальнага ісламскага палітычнага
рэжым, пакістанскі навуковец Абу Ала Маудуди прыдумаў неалагізм "теодемократия", тады як французскі вучоны Массиньон прапанаваў аксюмарон "свецкая Тэакратыя". Гэтыя выразы паказваюць, што некаторыя аспекты дэмакратыі ацэньваюцца станоўча і іншыя судзяць адмоўна. Напрыклад, Мусульманскія навукоўцы і актывісты часта падтрымліваюць прынцып падсправаздачнасці кіраўнікоў, якая з'яўляецца вызначальнай рысай дэмакратыі. Наадварот, яны часта адпрэчваюць прынцып падзелу паміж рэлігіяй і дзяржавай, які часта лічыцца часткай дэмакратыі (прынамсі, дэмакратыі, як вядома, у Злучаных Штатах сёння). Улічваючы гэтую неадназначную ацэнку дэмакратычных прынцыпаў, уяўляецца цікавым вызначыць канцэпцыю дэмакратыі, якая ляжыць у аснове ісламскіх палітычных мадэляў. Іншымі словамі, мы павінны паспрабаваць высветліць, што дэмакратычны «теодемократия». З гэтай мэтай, сярод уражлівага разнастайнасці і мноства ісламскіх традыцый нарматыўнай палітычнай думкі, мы ў асноўным засяроджаныя на шырокім патоку думкі, вяртаючыся да Абу Ала Маудуди і егіпецкай інтэлектуальнай Sayyed Qutb.8 гэтая тэндэнцыі думкі цікавая тым, што ў мусульманскім свеце, яна ляжыць у аснове некаторых з найбольш складаных супрацьстаянняў да дыфузіі каштоўнасцяў, якая адбываецца ад Захаду. На аснове рэлігійных каштоўнасцяў, гэтая тэндэнцыя распрацавала палітычную мадэль альтэрнатыву ліберальнай дэмакратыі. наогул кажучы, канцэпцыя дэмакратыі, уключаная ў гэтай ісламскай палітычнай мадэлі з'яўляецца працэдурнай. З некаторымі адрозненнямі, гэтая канцэпцыя натхнёная дэмакратычнымі тэорыі, якая прапагандуецца некаторыя канстытуцыяналісты і палітычныя scientists.10 Гэта тонкае і мінімалізм, да пэўнага моманту. Напрыклад, яна не залежыць ад якога-небудзь паняцця народнага суверэнітэту, і не патрабуе якога-небудзь падзелу паміж рэлігіяй і палітыкай. Першая мэта дадзенай працы складаецца ў распрацоўцы гэтай канцэпцыі мінімалізму. Мы робім дэталёвы пералік яго для таго, каб ізаляваць гэтую канцэпцыю ад яго маральнага (ліберальны) асновы, якія з'яўляюцца спрэчнымі з пэўнай пункту гледжання ісламу разглядаецца тут. Сапраўды, дэмакратычны працэс, як правіла, атрымліваюць з прынцыпу асабістай аўтаноміі, які не адобраны гэтых ісламскіх theories.11 Тут, мы пакажам, што такі прынцып не з'яўляецца неабходным, каб апраўдаць дэмакратычны працэс.

On the American Constitution from the Perspective of the Qur’an and the Madinah Covenant

Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad

This paper is by no means an exhaustive comparison of the American Constitution with the Qur’an and the Madinah Covenant. Rather, it explores the kinds of insights that a comparison between these two documents may suggest. Accordingly, the constitutional topics selected are those in which the author or the commentators on earlier drafts perceived an assessment within the Islamic sources.4 This paper should be taken as an invitation for future studies with more systematic comparisons. In addition to rational inference from the text of the Qur’an and of the Madinah Covenant, Я буду абапірацца на погляды паплечнікаў Прарока, зафіксаваныя ў вядучых кнігах хадысаў. Аналагічна, погляды Айцоў-заснавальнікаў Амерыканскай Рэспублікі на канстытуцыйныя
пытанні сфармуляваны ў "Федэралісцкіх дакументах". Мы пачнем з разгляду Пакта аб Медыне, а затым ацаніць мэты Канстытуцыі, як гэта выказана ў прэамбуле. Пасля гэтага, мы вывучым мноства тэм у асноўнай частцы тэксту, якія паддаюцца прапанаванай тут экспертызе. У прыватнасці, гэта ролі галін улады ў адпаведнасці з падзелам улад, роля выбараў у вызначэнні наступнага кіраўніка дзяржавы, пакаранне за здраду, існаванне гандлю рабамі і расізму, рэспубліканская форма кіравання, палажэнні аб унясенні змяненняў у Канстытуцыю, religious tests, and the Bill of Rights. Нарэшце, we consider the Madisonian arguments on how the Constitution may be considered a model for avoiding fitnah.
The Madinah Covenant That Muslims attach great significance to their organization as a political community can be seen in the fact that their calendar is dated neither from the birth nor the death of the Prophet, but from the establishment of the first Muslim polity in the city-state of Madinah in 622. Before Madinah was founded, the Arabs had no state to “establish justice, insure domestic
tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty” The custom at that time was that those who were too weak to protect themselves became clients of a protector (wali). Muhammad, himself an orphan, быў выхаваны пад аховай свайго дзядзькі Абу Таліба.
Пасля смерці дзядзькі ў в 619, Мухамед атрымаў запрашэнне ад варожых арабскіх плямёнаў Ятрыба кіраваць там. Апынуўшыся ў Ятрыбе, ён заключыў запавет з усімі яго жыхарамі, прымалі яны іслам ці не. На яго падпісаліся нават яўрэі, якія жывуць на ўскраіне горада.

Іслам І ДЭМАКРАТЫЯ Ліберальнага

Робін Райт
З усіх праблем, якія стаяць перад дэмакратыяй у 1990-я гады, адзін з найвялікшых ляжыць у ісламскім свеце. Толькі нешматлікія з больш чым чатыры дзесяткі пераважна мусульманскіх краін дамагліся значных поспехаў на шляху да стварэння дэмакратычных сістэм. сярод купкі–уключаючы Албанію, Бангладэш, Іарданія, Кіргізія, Ліван, Малі, Пакістан, і Турцыя–не адзін да гэтага часу дасягнута поўнае, стабільны, або забеспячэння дэмакратыі. А самы буйны рэгіянальны блок працягнуўшы супраць глабальнай тэндэнцыі да палітычнага плюралізму ўключае мусульманскія краіны Блізкага Усходу і Паўночнай Афрыкі.
Аднак супраціў палітычных зменаў, звязаных з ісламскім блокам не абавязкова залежыць ад мусульманскай веры. Сапраўды, дадзеныя паказваюць на зусім наадварот. Кіраўнікі ў некаторых з самых антыдэмакратычных рэжымаў у ісламскім свеце–такія, як Бруней, Інданезія, Ірак, Аман, Катар, Сірыя, і Туркменістан–свецкія самадзержца, якія адмаўляюцца дзяліць уладу са сваімі братамі.
ў цэлым, перашкоды на шляху палітычнага плюралізму ў ісламскіх краінах не адрозніваюцца ад праблем, з якімі сутыкаюцца раней у іншых частках свету: свецкія ідэалогіі, такія як баасизм ў Іраку і Сірыі, Pancasila ў Інданэзіі, або зацяжны камунізм у некаторых былых савецкіх рэспубліках Цэнтральнай Азіі не трываў ніякай рэальнай апазіцыі. Як ні дзіўна, многія з гэтых ідэалогій былі адаптаваныя з Захаду; баасизм, напрыклад, быў натхнёны еўрапейскім сацыялізмам 1930-х і 1940-х гадоў. Жорсткае ўрад кантралюе больш за ўсё ад сувязі ў Саудаўскай Аравіі і Брунея для замежных турыстаў у Узбекістане і Інданезіі таксама ізаляваць свой народ ад дэмакратычных ідэй і дыскусій па пашырэнню правоў і магчымасцяў папулярнай. У самых буйных і самых бедных мусульманскіх краін, акрамя таго, праблемы, агульныя для [канец старонкі 64] развіваюцца дзяржавы, ад непісьменнасці і хвароб да беднасці, зрабіць простае выжыванне прыярытэту і робяць дэмакратычнай палітыку уяўнай раскоша. Нарэшце, як іх немусульманскіх суседзяў у Азіі і Афрыцы, большасць мусульманскіх таварыстваў не маюць мясцовай гісторыі дэмакратыі, на якім маляваць. Як дэмакратыя заквітнела ў заходніх штатах на працягу апошніх трох стагоддзяў, Мусульманскія грамадства, як правіла, жылі ў каланіяльных кіраўнікоў, каралі, або племянныя і кланавыя лідары.
Іншымі словамі, ні іслам, ні яго культура не з'яўляецца асноўным перашкодай на шляху да палітычнай сучаснасці, нават калі недэмакратычныя кіраўнікі часам выкарыстоўваюць іслам у якасці апраўдання. 1 У Саудаўскай Аравіі, напрыклад, Кіруючы дом Саўдаў належыў на вахабізмам, пурытанская брэнд сунізм, першы, каб аб'яднаць плямёны Аравійскага паўвострава, а затым, каб апраўдаць дынастыю. Як і іншыя монатэістычныя рэлігіі, Іслам прапануе шырокі круг, а часам і супярэчлівыя інструкцыі. У Саудаўскай Аравіі, дагматы ісламу былі выбарачна ў форме для падтрымання аўтарытарнага манархіі.

Іслам і новы палітычны ландшафт

адваротны, Майкл Кіт, Азра Хан,
Кальбір Шукра і Джон Саламос

СЛЕД атакі на Сусветны гандлёвы цэнтр на 11 Верасень 2001, і выбухі ў Мадрыдзе і Лондане 2004 і 2005, a literature that addresses the forms and modalities of religious expression – particularly Islamic religious expression – has flourished in the penumbral regions that link mainstream social science to social policy design, think tanks and journalism. Much of the work has attempted to define attitudes or predispositions of a Muslim population in a particular site of tension such as London or the UK (Barnes, 2006; Ethnos Consultancy, 2005; GFK, 2006; GLA, 2006; Populus, 2006), or critiqued particular forms of social policy intervention (Bright, 2006a; Mirza et al., 2007). Studies of Islamism and Jihadism have created a particular focus on the syncretic and complex links between Islamic religious faith and forms of social movement and political mobilization (Husain, 2007; Kepel, 2004, 2006; McRoy, 2006; Neville-Jones et al., 2006, 2007; Phillips, 2006; Roy, 2004, 2006). Conventionally, аналітычны фокус падкрэсліў культуру ісламу, сістэмы вераванняў вернікаў, і гістарычныя і геаграфічныя траекторыі мусульманскага насельніцтва ва ўсім свеце ў цэлым і на "Захадзе" ў прыватнасці (Абас, 2005; Ансары, 2002; Ід і Гарбін, 2002; Хусэйн, 2006; Modood, 2005; Рамадан, 1999, 2005). У гэтым артыкуле акцэнт робіцца на іншым. Мы сцвярджаем, што даследаванні ісламскага палітычнага ўдзелу павінны быць асцярожна кантэкстуалізаваны, не звяртаючыся да вялікіх агульных дадзеных пра культуру і веру.. Гэта таму, што і культура, і вера структураваныя і, у сваю чаргу, структуруюць культуру, інстытуцыянальныя і дарадчыя ландшафты, праз якія яны артыкулююцца. У выпадку з брытанскім досведам, схаваныя сляды хрысціянства ў фарміраванні сацыяльнай дзяржавы ў мінулым стагоддзі, the rapidly changing cartography of spaces of the political and the role of ‘faith organizations’ in the restructuring of welfare provision generate the material social context determining the opportunities and the outlines of new forms of political participation.

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam

Dr. Икбал

As a cultural movement Islam rejects the old static view of the universe, and reaches a dynamic view. As an emotional system of unification it recognizes the worth of the individual as such, and rejects bloodrelationship as a basis of human unity. Blood-relationship is earthrootedness. The search for a purely psychological foundation of human unity becomes possible only with the perception that all human life is spiritual in its origin.1 Such a perception is creative of fresh loyalties without any ceremonial to keep them alive, and makes it possible for man to emancipate himself from the earth. Christianity which had originally appeared as a monastic order was tried by Constantine as a system of unification.2 Its failure to work as such a system drove the Emperor Julian3 to return to the old gods of Rome on which he attempted to put philosophical interpretations. A modern historian of civilization has thus depicted the state of the civilized world about the time when Islam appeared on the stage of History: It seemed then that the great civilization that it had taken four thousand years to construct was on the verge of disintegration, and that mankind was likely to return to that condition of barbarism where every tribe and sect was against the next, and law and order were unknown . . . The
old tribal sanctions had lost their power. Hence the old imperial methods would no longer operate. The new sanctions created by
Christianity were working division and destruction instead of unity and order. It was a time fraught with tragedy. Civilization, like a gigantic tree whose foliage had overarched the world and whose branches had borne the golden fruits of art and science and literature, stood tottering, its trunk no longer alive with the flowing sap of devotion and reverence, but rotted to the core, раздзёрты бурамі вайны, і трымаліся разам толькі шнурамі старажытных звычаяў і законаў, што можа сапсавацца ў любы момант. Ці існавала нейкая эмацыянальная культура, якую можна было б унесці, каб яшчэ раз сабраць чалавецтва ў адзінства і выратаваць цывілізацыю? Гэта культура павінна быць нечым новым тыпам, бо старыя санкцыі і цырымоніі былі мёртвыя, і пабудаваць іншыя падобныя віды - гэта праца
Затым пісьменнік распавядае нам, што свет меў патрэбу ў новай культуры, якая заменіць культуру трона, і сістэмы аб'яднання, якія грунтаваліся на кроўных адносінах.
Гэта дзіўна, - дадае ён, што такая культура павінна была паўстаць з Аравіі якраз у той час, калі яна была найбольш патрэбная. Гэта, Аднак, нічога дзіўнага ў гэтай з'яве. The world-life intuitively sees its own needs, and at critical moments defines its own direction. This is what, in the language of religion, we call prophetic revelation. It is only natural that Islam should have flashed across the consciousness of a simple people untouched by any of the ancient cultures, and occupying a geographical position where three continents meet together. The new culture finds the foundation of world-unity in the principle of Tauhâd.’5 Islam, as a polity, is only a practical means of making this principle a living factor in the intellectual and emotional life of mankind. It demands loyalty to God, not to thrones. And since God is the ultimate spiritual basis of all life, loyalty to God virtually amounts to man’s loyalty to his own ideal nature. The ultimate spiritual basis of all life, as conceived by Islam, is eternal and reveals itself in variety and change. A society based on such a conception of Reality must reconcile, in its life, the categories of permanence and change. It must possess eternal principles to regulate its collective life, for the eternal gives us a foothold in the world of perpetual change.

ісламская рэфармацыя

Аднан Хан

The Italian Prime Minister, Silvio Berlusconi boasted after the events of 9/11:
“…we must be aware of the superiority of our civilisation, a system that has guaranteed

well being, respect for human rights andin contrast with Islamic countriesrespect

for religious and political rights, a system that has its values understanding of diversity

and tolerance…The West will conquer peoples, як гэта перамагло камунізм, нават калі гэта

азначае супрацьстаянне з іншай цывілізацыяй, ісламская, затрымаўся там, дзе быў

1,400 гадоў таму ... »1

І ў 2007 справаздача інстытута RAND:
«Барацьба, якая вядзецца на большай частцы мусульманскага свету, па сутнасці з'яўляецца вайной

ідэі. Яго вынікі будуць вызначаць будучы кірунак мусульманскага свету ".

Стварэнне ўмераных мусульманскіх сетак, Інстытут RAND

Паняцце "іслам" (рэформа) - паняцце, невядомае мусульманам. Ён ніколі не існаваў на працягу

гісторыя ісламскай цывілізацыі; гэта ніколі не абмяркоўвалася і нават не разглядалася. Беглы погляд на класіку

Ісламская літаратура паказвае нам, што калі класічныя вучоныя заклалі асновы усула, і кадыфікаваны

іх ісламскія пастановы (фікх) they were only looking to the comprehension of the Islamic rules in order to

apply them. A similar situation occurred when the rules were laid down for the hadith, tafseer and the

Arabic language. Scholars, thinkers and intellectuals throughout Islamic history spent much time

understanding Allah’s revelation – the Qur’an and applying the ayaat upon the realities and coined

principals and disciplines in order to facilitate understanding. Hence the Qur’an remained the basis of

study and all the disciplines that evolved were always based upon the Qur’an. Those who became

smitten by Greek philosophy such as the Muslim philosophers and some from amongst the Mut’azilah

were considered to have left the fold of Islam as the Qur’an ceased to be their basis of study. Такім чынам для

любы мусульманін, які спрабуе вывесці правілы альбо зразумець, якую пазіцыю трэба прымаць да канкрэтнага чалавека

выданне Карана з'яўляецца асновай гэтага даследавання.

Першая спроба рэфармаваць іслам адбылася на мяжы XIX стагоддзя. Па чарзе

стагоддзі Ума знаходзілася ў працяглым перыядзе заняпаду, калі глабальны баланс сіл змяніўся

ад Хілафа да Брытаніі. Праблемы з мантажом ахапілі Халафу, пакуль была Заходняя Еўропа

у разгар прамысловай рэвалюцыі. Ума страціла сваё першароднае разуменне ісламу, і

у спробе пераламаць спад, які ахапіў усманаў (Асманы) некаторыя мусульмане былі адпраўлены ў

Захад, і ў выніку былі ўражаны ўбачаным. Рыфаа Рафі аль-Тахтаві з Егіпта (1801-1873),

па вяртанні з Парыжа, wrote a biographical book called Takhlis al-ibriz ila talkhis Bariz (The

Extraction of Gold, or an Overview of Paris, 1834), praising their cleanliness, love of work, and above

all social morality. He declared that we must mimic what is being done in Paris, advocating changes to

the Islamic society from liberalising women to the systems of ruling. This thought, and others like it,

marked the beginning of the reinventing trend in Islam.