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ФЕМИНИЗАМ ИЗМЕЂУ СЕКУЛАРИЗМА И ИСЛАМИЗМА: СЛУЧАЈ ПАЛЕСТИНЕ

др, Ислах Јад

Законодавни избори одржани на Западној обали и у Појасу Газе године 2006 довео на власт исламистички покрет Хамас, који је потом формирао већину Палестинског законодавног већа и такође прву већинску Хамасову владу. Ови избори су резултирали именовањем прве жене министра Хамаса, која је постала министарка за женска питања. Између марта 2006 и јун 2007, две различите министрице Хамаса преузеле су ову функцију, али и једнима и другима је било тешко да управљају Министарством јер већина његових запослених нису били чланови Хамаса већ су припадали другим политичким партијама, а већина су били чланови Фатаха, доминантни покрет који контролише већину институција Палестинске управе. Напет период борбе између жена Хамаса у Министарству за женска питања и чланица Фатаха завршио се након Хамасовог преузимања власти у Појасу Газе и последичног пада његове владе на Западној обали – борба која је понекад добијала насилан обрт. Један од разлога који је касније наведен да објасни ову борбу била је разлика између секуларног феминистичког дискурса и исламистичког дискурса о женским питањима. У палестинском контексту ово неслагање је попримило опасну природу јер је коришћено да се оправда продубљивање крваве политичке борбе, уклањање жена Хамаса са њихових позиција или позиција, и политичке и географске поделе које су у то време преовладавале и на Западној обали и на окупираном Појасу Газе.
Ова борба отвара низ важних питања: треба ли казнити исламистички покрет који је дошао на власт, или треба да размотримо разлоге који су довели до Фатеховог неуспеха у политичкој арени? Може ли феминизам понудити свеобухватан оквир за жене, без обзира на њихова друштвена и идеолошка опредељења? Може ли им дискурс о заједничкој основи за жене помоћи да схвате и договоре своје заједничке циљеве? Да ли је патернализам присутан само у исламистичкој идеологији, а не у национализму и патриотизму? Шта подразумевамо под феминизмом? Постоји ли само један феминизам, или неколико феминизама? Шта подразумевамо под исламом – да ли је то покрет познат под овим именом или религија, филозофија, или правни систем? Морамо ићи до дна ових питања и пажљиво их размотрити, и морамо да се договоримо о њима да бисмо касније могли да одлучимо, као феминисткиње, ако наша критика патернализма треба да буде усмерена на религију (вера), који треба да буде ограничен на срце верника и да му се не дозволи да преузме контролу над светом у целини, или јуриспруденција, који се односи на различите школе вере које објашњавају правни систем садржан у Курану и изрекама Посланика – суннет.

ИСЛАМИСТИЧКИ ЖЕНСКИ АКТИВИЗАМ У ОКУПИРАНОЈ ПАЛЕСТИНИ

Интервјуи Кхаледа Амаиреха

Интервју са Самиром Ал-Халајка

Самеера Ал-Халаика је изабрани члан Палестинског законодавног већа. Она је била

године рођен у селу Шојух код Хеброна 1964. Дипломирала је шеријат (Исламске

Право) са Универзитета Хеброн. Радила је као новинар из 1996 до 2006 када

ушла је у Палестинско законодавно веће као изабрани члан 2006 избори.

Удата је и има седморо деце.

П: У неким западним земљама постоји општи утисак да жене добијају

инфериорног третмана унутар исламских група отпора, као што је Хамас. Да ли је ово истина?

Како се поступа са активисткињама у Хамасу?
Права и дужности муслиманки потичу пре свега из исламског шеријата или закона.

То нису добровољна или добротворна дела или гестови које добијамо од Хамаса или било кога

друго. Тако, што се тиче политичког ангажмана и активизма, жене генерално имају

иста права и дужности као и мушкарци. После свега, жене чине барем 50 посто од

друштво. У извесном смислу, они су читаво друштво јер рађају, и подићи,

нова генерација.

Стога, Могу рећи да је статус жена у Хамасу у потпуности у складу са њом

статус у самом исламу. То значи да је она пуноправни партнер на свим нивоима. Заиста, било би

неправедно и неправедно за ислама (или исламиста ако желите) жена да буде партнер у патњи

док је она искључена из процеса одлучивања. Због тога је улога жене у

Хамас је увек био пионир.

П: Да ли сматрате да је појава женског политичког активизма унутар Хамаса

природни развој који је компатибилан са класичним исламским концептима

у погледу статуса и улоге жене, или је то само неопходан одговор на

притисци модерности и захтеви политичког деловања и наставка

Израелска окупација?

Не постоји текст у исламској јуриспруденцији нити у Хамасовој повељи који спречава жене

политичко учешће. Верујем да је супротно истина — постоје бројни кур'ански стихови

и изреке пророка Мухамеда који позива жене да буду активне у политици и јавности

питања која утичу на муслимане. Али то је тачно и за жене, као што је то за мушкарце, политички активизам

није обавезно већ добровољно, и углавном се одлучује у светлу способности сваке жене,

квалификације и индивидуалне околности. Ипак, показујући бригу за јавност

питања су обавезна за сваког муслимана и муслиманку. Пророк

рекао је Мухамед: „Онај ко не показује бригу за питања муслимана није муслиман.

Штавише, Палестинске исламисткиње морају узети у обзир све објективне факторе на терену

рачуна када одлучује да ли да се укључи у политику или да се укључи у политички активизам.


Ислам, Политички ислам и Америка

Араб Инсигхт

Да ли је могуће „братство“ са Америком?

халил ал-анани

„Нема шансе да комуницирамо са било којом САД. администрацију све док Сједињене Државе задрже своје дугогодишње виђење ислама као стварне опасности, гледиште које Сједињене Државе ставља у исти чамац као и ционистички непријатељ. Немамо унапред створене идеје о америчком народу или САД. друштво и његове грађанске организације и трустови мозгова. Немамо проблема у комуникацији са америчким народом, али се не улажу адекватни напори да нас зближе,“, рекао је др. Иссам ал-Ириан, шеф политичког одељења Муслиманске браће у телефонском интервјуу.
Ал-Ирианове речи сумирају ставове Муслиманског братства о америчком народу и САД. влада. Остали чланови Муслиманског братства би се сложили, као што би покојни Хасан ал-Бана, који је основао групу у 1928. Ал- Бана је Запад посматрао углавном као симбол моралног пропадања. Other Salafis – an Islamic school of thought that relies on ancestors as exemplary models – have taken the same view of the United States, but lack the ideological flexibility espoused by the Muslim Brotherhood. While the Muslim Brotherhood believes in engaging the Americans in civil dialogue, other extremist groups see no point in dialogue and maintain that force is the only way of dealing with the United States.

Notes on the Isocratic Legacy and Islamic Political Thought: The Example of Education

ЈАМЕС МУИР

An unfortunate feature of human history is the tendency for religious differences and con icts to nourish themselves with the poisonous brew of ignorance and prejudice. Док се понекад може много учинити да се предрасуде смање, Чини ми се да би научници и просветни радници првенствено требали да се баве фундаменталнијим и трајнијим циљем смањења незнања. Нечији успех у смањењу незнања – укључујући и сопствено – зависиће од нечијих мотива.
Проучавање исламске образовне филозофије може бити мотивисано тренутним практичним проблемима: жеља британских муслимана да имају исламске школе, било да се финансира приватно или од стране државе, један је актуелан пример. Из перспективе образовне филозофије, however, такав мотив је изузетно узак, ограничен концептима и категоријама актуелних локалних политичких спорова. За оне мотивисане жељом за знањем и разумевањем традиције ван своје, врло је сумњиво да било које проучавање исламске филозофије ограничено тренутним практичним интересима може бити продуктивно. Не постоји једноставна кореспонденција између знања и „релевантности“.
Мора, however, бити нека веза између две традиције мишљења и праксе ако треба да постоји полазна тачка, и улазна тачка, што омогућава научнику да корача из једне традиције у другу. Исократово наслеђе може бити једна таква полазна тачка, што ће нам помоћи да разумемо однос између две традиције, класичног грчког и исламског. Доминација исократског наслеђа у западном образовању је добро утврђена и широко позната међу историчарима, класицисти
и политички филозофи, иако је свест о томе тек почела да излази на површину међу просветним радницима.2 Слично, исократско наслеђе образовању (и богата традиција арапског платонизма у филозофији) је утицао на исламску мисао, иако на начине који су
још увек није добро схваћено. Намера овог рада је да сугерише да је модификовани облик исократске образовне традиције фундаментална компонента исламске политичке мисли., Наиме, Исламска просветна мисао. Ова општа формулација намере овог рада у смислу исламске политичке мисли може довести до неспоразума. Ислам, наравно, присталице га сматрају уједињеним и универзалним системом веровања и понашања.

О америчком уставу из перспективе Кур'ана и Мединског пакта

Имад-ад-Деан Ахмад

Овај рад ни у ком случају није исцрпно поређење америчког устава са Кур'аном и Мединским заветом. Радије, истражује врсте увида које поређење између ова два документа може да сугерише. Према томе, Одабране су уставне теме у којима су аутор или коментатори ранијих нацрта перципирали процену у исламским изворима.4 Овај рад треба узети као позив за будућа истраживања са систематичнијим поређењима.. Поред рационалног закључивања из текста Кур'ана и Мединског савеза, Ослањаћу се на ставове Посланикових асхаба који су забележени у водећим књигама хадиса. Аналогно, ставови оснивача Америчке Републике о уставним
питања су артикулисана у Федералистичким документима. Почећемо прегледом Мединског пакта, а затим процените циљеве Устава како су изражени у преамбули. Након тога, ми ћемо истражити различите теме у главном делу текста које су погодне за испитивање које је овде предложено. Нарочито, то су улоге грана власти према подели власти, улога избора у одређивању следећег шефа државе, казна за издају, постојање трговине робљем и расизма, републички облик владавине, одредбе за промену Устава, верски тестови, и Повеља о правима. Коначно, разматрамо мадисонске аргументе о томе како се Устав може сматрати моделом за избегавање фитне.
Медински завет Да муслимани придају велики значај својој организацији као политичкој заједници може се видети у чињеници да њихов календар није датиран ни од рођења ни од смрти Посланика., but from the establishment of the first Muslim polity in the city-state of Madinah in 622. Before Madinah was founded, the Arabs had no state to “establish justice, insure domestic
tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty” The custom at that time was that those who were too weak to protect themselves became clients of a protector (wali). Muhammad, himself an orphan, was brought up under the protection of his uncle Abu Talib.
After his uncle’s death in 619, Muhammad received an invitation from Yathrib’s feuding Arab tribes to govern there. Once in Yathrib, he entered into a covenant with all of its residents, whether they had accepted Islam or not. Even the Jews living on the city’s outskirts subscribed to it.

ИСЛАМ И ЛИБЕРАЛНА ДЕМОКРАТИЈА

Робин Вригхт
Of all the challenges facing democracy in the 1990s, one of the greatest lies in the Islamic world. Only a handful of the more than four dozen predominantly Muslim countries have made significant strides toward establishing democratic systems. Among this handfulincluding Albania, Bangladesh, Јордан, Kyrgyzstan, Либанон, Mali, Пакистан, and Turkeynot one has yet achieved full, stable, or secure democracy. And the largest single regional bloc holding out against the global trend toward political pluralism comprises the Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa.
Yet the resistance to political change associated with the Islamic bloc is not necessarily a function of the Muslim faith. Заиста, the evidence indicates quite the reverse. Владари у неким од најантидемократскијих режима у исламском свету–као што је Брунеј, Индонезија, Ирак, Оман, Катар, Сирија, и Туркменистан–су секуларне аутократе који одбијају да деле власт са својом браћом.
Свеукупно, препреке политичком плурализму у исламским земљама нису различите од проблема са којима су се раније суочавали у другим деловима света: секуларне идеологије као што је Баатизам у Ираку и Сирији, Панцасила у Индонезији, или дуготрајни комунизам у неким бившим совјетским централноазијским државама није имао право противљење. Иронично, многе од ових идеологија су адаптиране са Запада; баасизам, на пример, инспирисан европским социјализмом 1930-их и 1940-их. Rigid government controls over everything from communications in Saudi Arabia and Brunei to foreign visitors in Uzbekistan and Indonesia also isolate their people from democratic ideas and debate on popular empowerment. In the largest and poorest Muslim countries, moreover, problems common to [End Page 64] developing states, from illiteracy and disease to poverty, make simple survival a priority and render democratic politics a seeming luxury. Коначно, like their non-Muslim neighbors in Asia and Africa, most Muslim societies have no local history of democracy on which to draw. As democracy has blossomed in Western states over the past three centuries, Muslim societies have usually lived under colonial rulers, kings, or tribal and clan leaders.
Другим речима, neither Islam nor its culture is the major obstacle to political modernity, even if undemocratic rulers sometimes use Islam as their excuse. 1 In Saudi Arabia, на пример, the ruling House of Saud relied on Wahhabism, a puritanical brand of Sunni Islam, first to unite the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula and then to justify dynastic rule. Like other monotheistic religions, Islam offers wide-ranging and sometimes contradictory instruction. In Saudi Arabia, Islam’s tenets have been selectively shaped to sustain an authoritarian monarchy.

Принцип кретања у структури ислама

др. Мухаммад Икбал

Као културни покрет ислам одбацује стари статични поглед на универзум, и достиже динамичан поглед. Као емоционални систем уједињења препознаје вредност појединца као таквог, и одбацује крвно сродство као основу људског јединства. Крвни сродство је укорењеност. Потрага за чисто психолошком основом људског јединства постаје могућа само уз перцепцију да је сав људски живот духован по свом пореклу.1 Таква перцепција ствара свежу оданост без икаквог церемонијала који би их одржао у животу., и омогућава човеку да се еманципује од земље. Хришћанство које се првобитно појавило као монашки ред, Константин је покушао као систем уједињења.2 Његов неуспех да функционише као такав систем натерао је цара Јулијана3 да се врати старим боговима Рима на које је покушао да стави филозофска тумачења.. Савремени историчар цивилизације тако је осликао стање цивилизованог света у време када се ислам појавио на сцени историје.: It seemed then that the great civilization that it had taken four thousand years to construct was on the verge of disintegration, and that mankind was likely to return to that condition of barbarism where every tribe and sect was against the next, and law and order were unknown . . . The
old tribal sanctions had lost their power. Hence the old imperial methods would no longer operate. The new sanctions created by
Christianity were working division and destruction instead of unity and order. It was a time fraught with tragedy. Civilization, like a gigantic tree whose foliage had overarched the world and whose branches had borne the golden fruits of art and science and literature, stood tottering, its trunk no longer alive with the flowing sap of devotion and reverence, but rotted to the core, раздражен ратним вихорима, и држе заједно само узице древних обичаја и закона, који би могао да пукне сваког тренутка. Да ли је постојала емоционална култура која се могла унети, да још једном окупи човечанство у јединство и да спасе цивилизацију? Ова култура мора бити нешто новог типа, јер су старе санкције и церемоније били мртви, а изградити друге исте врсте био би посао
векова.’ Писац нам затим наставља да нам говори да је свету била потребна нова култура која би заузела место културе престола, и системи уједињења који су били засновани на крвном сродству.
То је невероватно, он додаје, да је таква култура требало да настане из Арабије баш у време када је била најпотребнија. Постоји, however, ништа невероватно у феномену. Свет-живот интуитивно види своје потребе, а у критичним тренуцима дефинише сопствени правац. То је оно што, језиком религије, називамо пророчким откривењем. Сасвим је природно да је ислам требало да се појави у свести једноставног народа нетакнутог ниједном од древних култура, и заузимају географски положај где се сусрећу три континента. Нова култура налази темељ јединства света у принципу Таухада.’5 Ислам, као политика, је само практично средство да се овај принцип учини живим фактором у интелектуалном и емоционалном животу човечанства. Захтева оданост Богу, не на престоле. И пошто је Бог крајња духовна основа свега живота, лојалност Богу практично представља оданост човека својој сопственој идеалној природи. The ultimate spiritual basis of all life, as conceived by Islam, is eternal and reveals itself in variety and change. A society based on such a conception of Reality must reconcile, in its life, the categories of permanence and change. It must possess eternal principles to regulate its collective life, for the eternal gives us a foothold in the world of perpetual change.

Islamism revisited

МАХА АЗЗАМ

There is a political and security crisis surrounding what is referred to as Islamism, a crisis whose antecedents long precede 9/11. Over the past 25 years, there have been different emphases on how to explain and combat Islamism. Analysts and policymakers
in the 1980s and 1990s spoke of the root causes of Islamic militancy as being economic malaise and marginalization. More recently there has been a focus on political reform as a means of undermining the appeal of radicalism. Increasingly today, the ideological and religious aspects of Islamism need to be addressed because they have become features of a wider political and security debate. Whether in connection with Al-Qaeda terrorism, political reform in the Muslim world, the nuclear issue in Iran or areas of crisis such as Palestine or Lebanon, it has become commonplace to fi nd that ideology and religion are used by opposing parties as sources of legitimization, inspiration and enmity.
The situation is further complicated today by the growing antagonism towards and fear of Islam in the West because of terrorist attacks which in turn impinge on attitudes towards immigration, religion and culture. The boundaries of the umma or community of the faithful have stretched beyond Muslim states to European cities. The umma potentially exists wherever there are Muslim communities. The shared sense of belonging to a common faith increases in an environment where the sense of integration into the surrounding community is unclear and where discrimination may be apparent. The greater the rejection of the values of society,
whether in the West or even in a Muslim state, the greater the consolidation of the moral force of Islam as a cultural identity and value-system.
Following the bombings in London on 7 Јул 2005 it became more apparent that some young people were asserting religious commitment as a way of expressing ethnicity. The links between Muslims across the globe and their perception that Muslims are vulnerable have led many in very diff erent parts of the world to merge their own local predicaments into the wider Muslim one, having identifi ed culturally, either primarily or partially, with a broadly defi ned Islam.

DEBATING DEMOCRACY IN THE ARAB WORLD

Ибтисам Ибрахим

What is Democracy?
Western scholars define democracy a method for protecting individuals’ civil and political rights. It provides for freedom of speech, press, вера, opinion, ownership, and assembly, as well as the right to vote, nominate and seek public office. Huntington (1984) argues that a political system is democratic to the extent that its most powerful collective decision makers are selected through
periodic elections in which candidates freely compete for votes and in which virtually all adults are eligible to vote. Rothstein (1995) states that democracy is a form of government and a process of governance that changes and adapts in response to circumstances. He also adds that the Western definition of democracyin addition to accountability, competition, some degree of participationcontains a guarantee of important civil and political rights. Anderson (1995) argues that the term democracy means a system in which the most powerful collective decision makers are selected through periodic elections in which candidates freely compete for votes and in which virtually all the adult population is eligible to vote. Саад Еддин Ибрахим (1995), an Egyptian scholar, sees democracy that might apply to the Arab world as a set of rules and institutions designed to enable governance through the peaceful
management of competing groups and/or conflicting interests. However, Samir Amin (1991) based his definition of democracy on the social Marxist perspective. He divides democracy into two categories: bourgeois democracy which is based on individual rights and freedom for the individual, but without having social equality; and political democracy which entitles all people in society the right to vote and to elect their government and institutional representatives which will help to obtain their equal social rights.
To conclude this section, I would say that there is no one single definition of democracy that indicates precisely what it is or what is not. However, as we noticed, most of the definitions mentioned above have essential similar elementsaccountability, competition, and some degree of participationwhich have become dominant in the Western world and internationally.

Islam and Democracy

ИТАЦ

If one reads the press or listens to commentators on international affairs, it is often said – and even more often implied but not said – that Islam is not compatible with democracy. In the nineties, Samuel Huntington set off an intellectual firestorm when he published The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, in which he presents his forecasts for the world – writ large. In the political realm, he notes that while Turkey and Pakistan might have some small claim to “democratic legitimacy” all other “… Muslim countries were overwhelmingly non-democratic: monarchies, one-party systems, military regimes, personal dictatorships or some combination of these, usually resting on a limited family, clan, or tribal base”. The premise on which his argument is founded is that they are not only ‘not like us’, they are actually opposed to our essential democratic values. He believes, as do others, that while the idea of Western democratization is being resisted in other parts of the world, the confrontation is most notable in those regions where Islam is the dominant faith.
The argument has also been made from the other side as well. An Iranian religious scholar, reflecting on an early twentieth-century constitutional crisis in his country, declared that Islam and democracy are not compatible because people are not equal and a legislative body is unnecessary because of the inclusive nature of Islamic religious law. A similar position was taken more recently by Ali Belhadj, an Algerian high school teacher, preacher and (in this context) leader of the FIS, when he declared “democracy was not an Islamic concept”. Perhaps the most dramatic statement to this effect was that of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, leader of the Sunni insurgents in Iraq who, when faced with the prospect of an election, denounced democracy as “an evil principle”.
But according to some Muslim scholars, democracy remains an important ideal in Islam, with the caveat that it is always subject to the religious law. The emphasis on the paramount place of the shari’a is an element of almost every Islamic comment on governance, moderate or extremist. Only if the ruler, who receives his authority from God, limits his actions to the “supervision of the administration of the shari’a” is he to be obeyed. If he does other than this, he is a non-believer and committed Muslims are to rebel against him. Herein lies the justification for much of the violence that has plagued the Muslim world in such struggles as that prevailing in Algeria during the 90s

In Search of Islamic Constitutionalism

Надирсиах хосен

While constitutionalism in the West is mostly identified with secular thought, Islamic constitutionalism, which incorporates some religious elements, has attracted growing interest in recent years. На пример, the Bush administration’s response to the events of 9/11 radically transformed the situation in Iraq and Afghanistan, and both countries are now rewriting their constitutions. As
Ann Elizabeth Mayer points out, Islamic constitutionalism is constitutionalism that is, in some form, based on Islamic principles, as opposed to the constitutionalism developed in countries that happen to be Muslim but which has not been informed by distinctively Islamic principles. Several Muslim scholars, among them Muhammad Asad3 and Abul A`la al-Maududi, have written on such aspects of constitutional issues as human rights and the separation of powers. However, in general their works fall into apologetics, as Chibli Mallat points out:
Whether for the classical age or for the contemporary Muslim world, scholarly research on public law must respect a set of axiomatic requirements.
First, the perusal of the tradition cannot be construed as a mere retrospective reading. By simply projecting present-day concepts backwards, it is all too easy to force the present into the past either in an apologetically contrived or haughtily dismissive manner. The approach is apologetic and contrived when Bills of Rights are read into, say, the Caliphate of `Umar, with the presupposition that the “just” qualities of `Umar included the complex and articulate precepts of constitutional balance one finds in modern texts

Islamophobia and Anti-Muslim Hate Crime

ЈОНАТХАН ГИТХЕНС-МАЗЕР

РОБЕРТ ЛАМБЕРТ МБЕ

The perils of Islamophobia and anti-Muslim hate crime threaten to undermine basic human rights, fundamental aspects of citizenship and co-existing partnerships for Muslims and non- Muslims alike in contemporary Europe. Routine portrayals of Islam as a religion of hatred, violence and inherent intolerance have become key planks for the emergence of extremist nationalist, anti-immigration politics in Europe – planks which seek to exploit populist fears and which have the potential to lead to Muslim disempowerment in Europe. Sections of the media have created a situation where the one serves to heighten the unfounded claims and anxieties of the other – such that politicians from Austria to the Britain, and the Netherlands to Spain, feel comfortable in using terms like “Tsunamis of Muslim immigration”, and accuse Islam of being a fundamental threat to a “European way of life”. While in many cases, the traction of this populist approach reflects an ignorance of Islamic faith, practice and belief, there are many think-tanks which are currently engaged in promoting erroneous depictions of Islam and Muslim political beliefs through unsubstantiated and academically baseless studies, and a reliance on techniques such as ‘junk-polling’. Prior to researching Islamophobia and anti-Muslim hate crime in London, we worked with Muslim Londoners to research the contested notion of what is widely termed by academics and policy makers as “violent radicalisation” (Githens-Mazer, 2010, Lambert 2010). To a large extent it was that prior research experience that persuaded us to embark on this new project. That is to say, there is an important link between the two areas
of work which we should explain at the outset. Од 9/11 Muslim Londoners, no less than Muslims in towns and cities across Europe, have often been unfairly stigmatised as subversive threats to state security and social cohesion, sometimes characterised as a fifth column (Cox and Marks 2006, Gove 2006, Mayer and Frampton 2009). We do not suggest that this stigmatisation did not exist before 9/11, still less do we argue that it revolves solely around the issues of security and social cohesion, but we do claim that the response to 9/11 – ‘the war on terror’ – and much of the rhetoric that has surrounded it has played a significant part in increasing the public perception of European Muslims as potential enemies rather than potential partners and neighbours.

Speech of Dr,MUHAMMAD BADIE

др,Мухаммад Бадие

In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate Praise be to Allah and Blessing on His messenger, companions and followers
Dear Brothers and Sisters,
I greet you with the Islamic greeting; Peace be upon you and God’s mercy and blessings;
It is the will of Allah that I undertake this huge responsibility which Allah has chosen for me and a request from the MB Movement which I respond to with the support of Allah. With the support of my Muslim Brothers I look forward to achieving the great goals, we devoted ourselves to, solely for the sake of Allah.
Dear Brothers and Sisters,
At the outset of my speech I would like to address our teacher, older brother, and distinguished leader Mr. Mohamed Mahdy Akef, the seventh leader of the MB group a strong, dedicated and enthusiastic person who led the group’s journey amid storms and surpassed all its obstacles, thus providing this unique and outstanding model to all leaders and senior officials in the government, associations and other parties by fulfilling his promise and handing over the leadership after only one term, words are not enough to express our feelings to this great leader and guide and we can only sayMay Allah reward you all the best”.
We say to our beloved Muslim brothers who are spread around the globe, it is unfortunate for us to have this big event happening while you are not among us for reasons beyond our control, however we feel that your souls are with us sending honest and sincere smiles and vibes.
As for the beloved ones who are behind the bars of tyranny and oppression for no just reason other than reiterating Allah is our God, and for seeking the dignity, pride and development of their country, we sincerely applaud and salute them for their patience, steadfastness and sacrifices which we are sure will not be without gain. We pray that those tyrants and oppressors salvage their conscience and that we see you again in our midst supporting our cause, may Allah bless and protect you all.
Dear Brothers and Sisters,
As you are aware, the main goal of the Muslim Brotherhood Movement (МБ) is comprehensive modification, which deals with all kinds of corruption through reform and change. “I only desire (your) betterment to the best of my power; and my success (in my task) can only come from Allah.” (Hud-88) and through cooperation with all powers of the nation and those with high spirits who are sincere to their religion and nation.
The MB believes that Allah has placed all the foundations necessary for the development and welfare of nations in the great Islam; therefore, Islam is their reference towards reform, which starts from the disciplining and training of the souls of individuals, followed by regulating families and societies by strengthening them, preceded by bringing justice to it and the continuous jihad to liberate the nation from any foreign dominance or intellectual, spiritual, cultural hegemony and economic, political or military colonialism, as well as leading the nation to development, prosperity and assuming its appropriate place in the world.

BETWEEN YESTERDAY AND TODAY

HASAN AL-BANNA

The First Islamic State
On the foundation of this virtuous Qur’anic social order the first Islamic state arose, having unshakeable faith in it, meticulously applying it, and spreading it throughout the world, so that the first Khilafah used to say: ‘If I should lose a camel’s lead, I would find it in Allah’s Book.’. He fought those who refused to pay zakah, regarding them as apostates because they had overthrown one of the pillars of this order, saying: ‘By Allah, if they refused me a lead which they would hand over to the Apostle of Allah (ас), I would fight them as soon as I have a sword in my hand!’ For unity, in all its meanings and manifestations, pervaded this new forthcoming nation.
Complete social unity arose from making the Qur’anic order and it’s language universal, while complete political unity was under the shadow of the Amir Al-Mumineen and beneath the standard of the Khilafah in the capital.
The fact that the Islamic ideology was one of decentralisation of the armed forces, the state treasuries, и provincial governors proved to be no obstacle to this, since all acted according to a single creed and a unified and comprehensive control. The Qur’anic principles dispelled and laid to rest the superstitious idolatry prevalent in the Arabian Peninsula and Persia. They banished guileful Judaism and confined it to a narrow province, putting an end to its religious and political authority. They struggled with Christianity such that its influence was greatly diminished in the Asian and African continents, confined only to Europe under the guard of the Byzantine Empire in Constantinople. Thus the Islamic state became the centre of spiritual and political dominance within the two largest continents. This state persisted in its attacks against the third continent, assaulting Constantinople from the east and besieging it until the siege grew wearisome. Then it came at it from the west,
plunging into Spain, with its victorious soldiers reaching the heart of France and penetrating as far as northern and southern Italy. It established an imposing state in Western Europe, radiant with science and knowledge.
Afterwards, it ended the conquest of Constantinople itself and the confined Christianity within the restricted area of Central Europe. Islamic fleets ventured into the depths of the Mediterranean and Red seas, both became Islamic lakes. And so the armed forces of the Islamic state assumed supremacy of the seas both in the East and West, enjoying absolute mastery over land and sea. These Islamic nations had already combined and incorporated many things from other civilisations, but they triumphed through the strength of their faith and the solidness of their system over others. They Arabised them, or succeeded in doing so to a degree, and were able to sway them and convert them to the splendour, beauty and vitality of their language and religion. The Muslims were free to adopt anything beneficial from other civilisations, insofar as it did not have adverse effects on their social and political unity.

ИЗАЗОВИ ПРЕМА ИСЛАМСКОМ БАНКАРСТВУ

МУНАВАР ИКБАЛ
АУСАФ АХМАД
ТАРИКУЛЛАХ КХАН

Islamic banking practice, which started in early 1970s on a modest scale, has shown tremendous progress during the last 25 years. Serious research work of the past two and a half decades has established that Islamic banking is a viable and efficient way of financial intermediation. A number of Islamic banks have been established during this period under heterogeneous, social and economic milieu. Recently, many conventional banks, including some major multinational Western banks, have also started using Islamic banking techniques. All this is encouraging. However, the Islamic banking system, like any other system, has to be seen as an evolving reality. This experience needs to be evaluated objectively and the problems ought to be carefully identified and addressed to.

It is with this objective that the Islamic Research and Training Institute (IRTI) of the Islamic Development Bank (IDB) presents this paper on Challenges Facing Islamic Banking, as decided by the IDB Board of Executive Directors. A team of IRTI researchers consisting of Munawar Iqbal, Ausaf Ahmad and Tariqullah Khan has prepared the paper. Munawar Iqbal, Chief of the Islamic Banking and Finance Division acted as the project leader. Two external scholars have also refereed the study. IRTI is grateful for the contribution of these referees. The final product is being issued as the Second Occasional Paper.

It is hoped that serious consideration will be given to the challenges facing Islamic banking identified in the paper. Theoreticians and practitioners in the field of Islamic banking and finance need to find ways and means to meet those challenges so that Islamic banking can keep on progressing as it enters the 21st Century.

The Prelude to the Islamic State

Muhammad Ibn Katebur Rahman

We have been given Islam as guidance and his guidance is divided in to, acts of worship wholly between Allah and His servants and acts of achieving aims to attain the Islamic sovereignty on earth. Acts of worship are Salat, Saum, Zabh, etc which have no rational reasons for its existence. Then there are acts which have reasons for its existence such as spending wealth, Џихад, speaking truth, fighting injustice, preventing zina, drugs, interests, etc which are there for the benefit and well being of societies and nations. Each intelligent worshipper in order to achieve these goals of universal benefits therefore must always seek ways to attain it and one of it is theological and political unity. In order to envision the gateways in the world to implement and realize these universal interests we then must know about the changing world, we must know about the age of information. We must know about its nature, behavior, progression which includes knowing about politics, history, technology, science, војни, cultures, philosophies, psychology of nations, people of power and values, places of interest and value, resources of earth, international law, интернет, humanity with its divisions on basis of wealth, power and their place in history and progression. Our Prophet (saas) stated that the knowledge is a lost property of a believer and indeed this knowledge is all those knowledge which by knowing benefits Islam and the Muslims both in world and hereafter. The intelligent among us especially the clerics, therefore study books and organizes people of knowledge on basis of their respective expertise so that they can give efficient and effective solutions for the attainment of those Islamic universal benefits. The Islamic politics is just there to realize these universal benefits, to humanity on whole and Muslims in particular